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Found 25 results

  1. CodeGround Online Testing

    Tips for freshers to improve their CV

    If you’re a Fresher without work experience, it can be difficult to identify what to put in your resume. Many freshers often pad their resumes to make it look bigger - Please don’t do that. Don’t talk about your parents and their professions Don’t use large fonts Don’t list down too many ways to contact you just to consume space Don’t write down a generic signature statement which will just be skipped Here are things you MUST add in detail: Your projects and internships - Many freshers often just provide a one-line about these. But, these points are exactly where you should elaborate more. Add sub-headings under your project - Overview, Methodologies/ Technical Skills, Your contributions, Learnings etc. Guide the interview: Your CV is not just a way to talk about your achievements. It can also be a good way for you to guide your interview, so that the conversation turns towards your strengths. Mention your favorite subjects, books you’ve read, blogs you follow etc. Use power verbs and numbers: Power verbs like led, organized, achieved, implemented, envisioned etc are all good. Use numbers to be more specific about your achievements. Examples below: Won second place among 35 participants Created 12 articles with a total views of 4370 during my internship Make sure you get 4–5 friends to review your CV once. Finally, make sure you are prepared to field questions on any topic you have mentioned in your Resume. If you have mentioned something in your CV, Interviewers believe that it is fair game to question you on that topic. So prepare yourself accordingly. For reference: https://codeground.in/blog/index.php/2016/11/02/19-tips-to-improve-your-cv-for-freshers/ Was this Content Useful? Like Share Comment CodeGround Online Testing Platform is an online assessment and evaluation system that helps Recruiters conduct online screening tests to filter candidates before the interview process.
  2. CodeGround Online Testing

    Tips for freshers to improve their CV

    If you’re a Fresher without work experience, it can be difficult to identify what to put in your resume. Many freshers often pad their resumes to make it look bigger - Please don’t do that. Don’t talk about your parents and their professions Don’t use large fonts Don’t list down too many ways to contact you just to consume space Don’t write down a generic signature statement which will just be skipped Here are things you MUST add in detail: Your projects and internships - Many freshers often just provide a one-line about these. But, these points are exactly where you should elaborate more. Add sub-headings under your project - Overview, Methodologies/ Technical Skills, Your contributions, Learnings etc. Guide the interview: Your CV is not just a way to talk about your achievements. It can also be a good way for you to guide your interview, so that the conversation turns towards your strengths. Mention your favorite subjects, books you’ve read, blogs you follow etc. Use power verbs and numbers: Power verbs like led, organized, achieved, implemented, envisioned etc are all good. Use numbers to be more specific about your achievements. Examples below: Won second place among 35 participants Created 12 articles with a total views of 4370 during my internship Make sure you get 4–5 friends to review your CV once. Finally, make sure you are prepared to field questions on any topic you have mentioned in your Resume. If you have mentioned something in your CV, Interviewers believe that it is fair game to question you on that topic. So prepare yourself accordingly. For reference: https://codeground.in/blog/index.php/2016/11/02/19-tips-to-improve-your-cv-for-freshers/ Was this Content Useful? Like Share Comment CodeGround Online Testing Platform is an online assessment and evaluation system that helps Recruiters conduct online screening tests to filter candidates before the interview process.
  3. Grammar Rules with 6 Tips on using Interrogative Sentences What is an Interrogative? An Interrogative is a type of sentence which usually asks a question or requests information and ends with a question mark (?). An interrogative sentence usually begins with: a) A question word such as what, who, where, which or how. Example: What is your name? An auxiliary verb such as do/does, can or would. Example: Do you speak English? Formation of Interrogative Sentences 1. From an assertive sentence in the simple present tense: Do (for I, You and Plurals)/Does (Singular) + subject + present tense form of the verb. Meera sings a song. (Assertive) Does Meera sing a song? (Interrogative) 2. From an affirmative sentence that contains the auxiliaries is, am, are, has or have, can, may, will, shall etc, the interrogative sentence will begin with these words. She is a doctor. (Affirmative) Is she a doctor? (Interrogative) 3. If the interrogative sentence is in the negative, we begin it with do not or does not. Example: Don’t you want to come with us? Types of Interrogatives: 1. Yes/No interrogatives are questions that can be answered with a yes or a no response. Example: Are you ready to go? (Yes I am ready to go) Did you go to the game Friday night? 2. Alternative interrogatives are questions that provide for two or more alternative answers. Example: Would you prefer chocolate or vanilla ice cream? Should I call or email you? 3. Wh-interrogative sentences begin with a wh-word and call for an open-ended answer. They begin with what, when, where, who, whom, which, whose, why and how. The answer can be a simple response or complex explanation. Example: What are you doing? Which songs do you like best? 4. Tag questions are questions attached or tagged onto the ending of a declarative statement. They transform a declarative sentence into an interrogative sentence. Example: You live in the city, don’t you? We need to get going now, don’t we? Tips on using Interrogatives: Tip 1: Direct & Indirect Interrogative Direct questions normally use inverted word order (verb before subject) and end with a question mark. Example: When is she coming for dinner? Indirect questions normally do not use inverted word order and do not end with a question mark. Example: I wonder when she is coming for dinner. An indirect question can form part of an interrogative sentence. Example: Can you tell me what material she likes? (Direct-question version: What material does she like?) Tip 2: Interrogative with Auxiliary Verb If the verb is an auxiliary verb, the interrogative is formed without the auxiliary do/does/did: Is Brinda in his office? (Brinda is in office) Can I talk to you? If the verb is 'normal', the interrogative is formed with the auxiliary do/does/did. After an auxiliary verb, the verb is added in the infinitive without to: Do you like that album? Did she see the movie? In both cases, the sentence is formed by inverting the first auxiliary verb: She is writing. -> Is she writing? Note: The 'normal' verb to do is also conjugated with the auxiliary do/does/did: Did you do it? Tip 3: W-H Interrogative Form Wh-questions: wh- + an auxiliary verb (be, do or have) + subject + main verb When are you leaving? wh- + a modal verb + subject + main verb: What has she done now? When what, who, which or whose is the subject or part of the subject, we do not use the auxiliary. We use the word order subject + verb: Who wants an ice cream? Who doesn’t want an ice cream? Tip 4: How ‘How’ can be used to form questions in many different ways. 1. Used by itself to mean "in what way". How do you start the car? 2. With adjectives to ask about the degree of an attribute. How old is your house? 3. With ‘much’ and ‘many’ to ask about quantity. How many people are coming to the party? (many is used with countable nouns.) How much flour do I need? (much is used with uncountable nouns) 4. With other adverbs to ask about the frequency or degree of an action. How quickly can you drive the car? Tip 5: What, Which 1. What, which: are used to ask questions about people or objects and in most cases can be replaced by each other. 2. Which: is used to ask about a fixed/limited number of things/people or when the options are visible or known to the speaker. 3. Which flavor of ice cream do you want? (The speaker knows about the choices offered or available) 4. What: is used to ask about things/people without the limitation or knowledge of the choices offered. 5. What do you want for dessert? (The speaker doesn’t know) Tip 6: Who, Whom, Whose Who: is used to refer to the subject of a sentence, i.e., subject pronoun like "he," "she" and "we" a) I see you. Who sees you? Whom: refers to the object and object pronoun like "him," "her" and "us." a) I see you. I see whom? Or whom do I see? Whose: is used to refer to possessive pronoun like "his," "her" and "our.” Whose camera is this? If the interrogative pronoun is a subject, there is no inversion: Who told you this? (she told me this) If the interrogative pronoun is an object, there is inversion: Who(m) are you talking to? (..talking to him) Spot the Errors: Each of the following questions will contain a mistake in the usage of Interrogatives. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Rahul asked whether anybody had seen his laptop? (Incorrect) Rahul asked whether anybody had seen his laptop. (Correct) #2: Do have you seen my book? (Incorrect) Have you seen my book? (Correct) #3: Did Rajesh called to you? (Incorrect) Did Rajesh call you? (Correct) #4: Who does want a sandwich for breakfast? (Incorrect) Who wants a sandwich for breakfast? (Correct) #5: How many water should I add to the curry? (Incorrect) How much water should I add to the curry? (Correct) #6: What hand do you write with? (Incorrect) Which hand do you write with? (Correct) #7: Who you fear the most? (Incorrect) Whom do you fear the most? (Correct) #8: Whom is in the kitchen? (Incorrect) Who is in the kitchen? (Correct) #9: Who did he blame for the accident? (Incorrect) Whom did he blame for the accident? (Correct) #10: Whom cell phone keeps ringing? (Incorrect) Whose cell phone keeps ringing? (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Interrogative Sentences - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/25-interrogatives/1-tips-on-interrogatives/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  4. 2 TIPS on cracking Aptitude Questions on Bankers Discount Tip #1: Understand the concepts in Banker’s Discount clearly Scenario: Suppose A has borrowed Rs 1000 from B and this amount should be returned with interest after 1 year. Let us assume that the market interest rate is 5% per year [Simple Interest]. A hands over to B a note with a Face Value of Rs 1050, promising repayment after 1 year. [1000 + (1000 x 0.05 x 1yr) = 1050] After 6 months, B decides that he needs the money immediately and cannot wait till the due date which is 6 months away. B approaches a bank and hands over the note from A with Face Value of Rs 1050 due after 6 months. Calculating True Discount: The present value (or true value) of the note from A is calculated as follows: PV x (1 + r x t) = FV [Here, PV is the present value, r is the rate of simple interest, t is time and FV is the Face Value of the note.] Present Value (or True Value) = 1050/(1.025) = Rs. 1024.4 True discount = Face Value – Present Value = 1050 – 1024.4 = Rs. 25.6 But, if the bank paid out Rs 1024.4 to B in exchange for the note, the bank would not make a profit. The bank does not use True Discount but uses another formula to calculate the discount called Banker’s Discount. Calculating Banker’s Discount: Banker’s Discount: The Simple Interest on the Face Value of the debt for the time period between the legally due date and the date on which the bill is discounted is called Banker’s Discount. Banker’s Discount = FV x r x t = 1050 x 0.05 x (1/2) = Rs 26.25 Note: True Discount = FV – [FV / (1 + r x t)] = FV [r x t / (1 + r x t)] < FV x r x t => True Discount < Banker’s Discount Instead of discounting True Discount, the Bank discounts the Banker’s Discount from the Face Value and pays out Rs 1050 – 26.25 = Rs. 1023.75 Banker’s Gain = Present Value of the Note – Actual Payout = (Face Value – True Discount) – (Face Value – Banker’s Discount) = Banker’s Discount – True Discount [This figure is always positive] Question: The banker's gain on a sum due 3 years hence at 12% per annum is Rs. 270. What is the banker’s discount? Solution: Banker’s Discount = FV x r x t = 0.36 x FV True Discount = FV – PV = FV – FV / [1 + (r x t)] = FV – FV / 1.36 = 0.36 x FV / 1.36 = Banker’s Discount / 1.36 Banker’s Gain = Banker’s Discount – True Discount = BD - BD/1.36 = 270 => Banker’s Discount, BD = 270 x 1.36 / 0.36 = Rs. 1020 Moving on, we come to the formulae in Banker’s Discounts. Question: The banker's discount on a certain sum due 2 years hence is 11/10 of the true discount. What is the rate? Solution: BD = FV x r x t TD = FV – PV = FV – FV / [1 + (r x t)] = FV x r x t / [1 + (r x t)] BD/ TD = 1 + (r x t) = 11/10 2r = 1/10 => r = 1/20 = 0.05 or 5% Tip #2: For transactions that do not involve a bank, use True Value Question: A man purchased a cow for Rs. 3000 and sold it the same day for Rs. 3600, allowing the buyer a credit of 2 years. If the rate of interest be 10% per annum, then what is his gain? Solution: Present Value = 3600/[1+(0.10 x 2)] = Rs 3000 Gain = Present Value – Cost = 0 Question: A trader owes a merchant Rs. 10,028 due 1 year hence. The trader wants to settle the account after 3 months. If the rate of interest 12% per annum, how much cash should he pay? Solution: Face Value = Rs. 10028, r = 12% p.a. Present Value after 9 months = 10028/[1+(0.12*9/12)] = Rs 9200 LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  5. 3 TIPS on solving Reading Comprehension Questions in Online Tests Tip 1: Read the Question first before reading the passage Promotion of a digital economy is an integral part of Government’s strategy to clean the system and weed out corruption and black money. It has a transformative impact in terms of greater formalization of the economy and mainstreaming of financial savings into the banking system. This, in turn, is expected to energize private investment in the country through lower cost of credit. India is now on the cusp of a massive digital revolution. A shift to digital payments has huge benefits for the common man. The earlier initiative of our Government to promote financial inclusion and the JAM trinity were important precursors to our current push for digital transactions. Already there is evidence of increased digital transactions. The BHIM app has been launched. It will unleash the power of mobile phones for digital payments and financial inclusion. 125 lakh people have adopted the BHIM app so far. The Government will launch two new schemes to promote the usage of BHIM; these are, Referral Bonus Scheme for individuals and a Cashback Scheme for merchants. Aadhar Pay, a merchant version of Aadhar Enabled Payment System, will be launched shortly. This will be specifically beneficial for those who do not have debit cards, mobile wallets and mobile phones. A Mission will be set up with a target of 2,500 crore digital transactions for 2017-18 through UPI, USSD, Aadhar Pay, IMPS and debit cards. Banks have targeted to introduce additional 10 lakh new PoS terminals by March 2017. They will be encouraged to introduce 20 lakh Aadhar based PoS by September 2017. Increased digital transactions will enable small and micro enterprises to access formal credit. Government will encourage SIDBI to refinance credit institutions which provide unsecured loans, at reasonable interest rates, to borrowers based on their transaction history. The digital payment infrastructure and grievance handling mechanisms shall be strengthened. The focus would be on rural and semi urban areas through Post Offices, Fair Price Shops and Banking Correspondents. Steps would be taken to promote and possibly mandate petrol pumps, fertilizer depots, municipalities, Block offices, road transport offices, universities, colleges, hospitals and other institutions to have facilities for digital payments, including BHIM App. A proposal to mandate all Government receipts through digital means, beyond a prescribed limit, is under consideration. Government will strengthen the Financial Inclusion Fund to augment resources for taking up these initiatives. Government will consider and work with various stakeholders for early implementation of the interim recommendations of the Committee of Chief Ministers on digital transactions. Question: How many people have adopted the BHIM App? If the question asks for a very specific value, you don’t have to read the whole passage. You can skim through it until you find the information is needed to answer the question. Tip 2: Use your best judgment on questions related to the Author’s motives, tone, purpose etc Two principles are involved in the controversy about the presence of foreign controlled media in the country; the free flow of ideas and images across national borders and the need to safeguard the national interest and preserve cultural autonomy. Both are valid but both are at loggerheads because each has been used to promote less lofty goals. The first principle conforms to a moral imperative: freedom to expression cannot rhyme with restrictions imposed by any government. But the free flow rhetoric also clouds the fact that the powerful Western, and especially American media, can and often do present, subtly or brazenly, news in a manner that promotes Western political, ideological and strategic interests. Besides, Western entertainment programs present lifestyles and values that run counter to the lifestyles and values cherished by traditional societies. All this explains why so many Indian newspapers, magazines and news agencies have sought protection from the courts to prevent foreign publications and news agencies from operating in the country. Their arguments are weak on two counts. As the bitter debate on a new world information and communication order demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties, many of those who resent Western ‘invasion’ in the fields of information and culture are no great friends of democracy. Secondly, the threat of such an ‘invasion’ has been aired by those media groups in the developing countries that fear that their business interests will be harmed if Western groups, equipped with large financial and technological resources and superior management skills, are allowed to operate in the country without let. The fear is valid but it goes against the grain of the economic reform programme. The presence of foreign newspapers and television channels will increase competition, which, in the course of time, can only lead to the up gradation of dynamic Indian newspapers and television channels, even while they drive the rest out of the market. One way to strike a balance between the two antagonistic principles would be to allow foreign media entry into the country, provided the India state treats them at par with the domestic media on all fronts. On the import of technology, for instance, foreign media cannot be allowed duty concessions denied to their Indian counterparts. Foreign media will also have to face legal consequences should they run foul of Indian laws. Why, for example, should the BBC, or Time magazine or The Economist get away by showing a map of Kashmir, which is at variance with the official Indian map? Why should they go scot-free when they allow secessionists and terrorists to air their views without giving the government the right to reply, or when they depict sexually explicit scenes, which would otherwise not be cleared by the Censor Board? Question: Which of the following seems to be the most likely purpose of writing this passage? a) To criticize foreign media To highlight the steps and caution to be taken about the entry of foreign media (Correct) c) To make the public aware of the technological superiority of western media d) To prevent foreign media from entering our country Here, we can quickly eliminate options A and C. Although the author is critical about the entry of foreign media, he does not wish to prevent their entry but to highlight certain precautions that must be taken. Hence, B would be the right answer. Tip 3: Use only the passage (not your personal opinions, politics and values) in choosing the answer The happy man is the man who lived objectively, who has free affection and wide interest, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they, in turn, make him an object of interest and affection to many others. To be the recipient of affection is a potent cause of happiness, but the man who demands affection is not the man upon whom it is bestowed. The man who receives affection is, speaking broadly, the man who gives it. But it useless to attempt to give it as a calculation, in the way in which one might lend money at interest, for a calculated affection is not genuine and is not felt to be so by the recipient. What then can a man do who is unhappy because he is encased in self? So long as he continues to think about the cause of his unhappiness, he continues to be self-centered and therefore does not get outside, the vicious circle if he is to get outside it, it must be by genuine interests, not by simulated interest accepted merely as a medicine. Although this difficulty is real, there is nevertheless much that he can do if he has rightly diagnosed his trouble. If, for example, his trouble is due to a sense of sin, conscious or unconscious he can first persuade his conscious mind that he has no reason to feel sinful, and then proceed, to plant his rational conviction in his unconscious mind, concerning himself meanwhile with some more or less neutral activity. If he succeeds in dispelling the sense of sin, it is possible that genuine objective interests will arise spontaneously. If his trouble is self-pity, he can deal with it in the same manner after first persuading himself that there is nothing extraordinarily unfortunate in his circumstances. If fear is his trouble, let him practice exercises designed to give courage. Courage has been recognized from time immemorial as an important virtue, and a great part of training of boys and young men has been devoted to producing a type of character capable of fearlessness in battle. But moral courage and intellectual courage have been much less studied, they also, however, have their technique, admit to yourself every day at least one painful truth, your will find his quite useful. Teach yourself to feel that life still be worth living even if you were not, as of course you are immeasurably superior to all your friends in virtue and in intelligence. Exercises of this sort prolonged through several years will at last enable you to admit facts without flinching and will, in so doing, free you from the empire of feat over a very large filed. Question: What happens when you think about cause of your unhappiness? a) You try to introspect and look critically at yourself You realize that the life can lived in different ways c) You try to practice exercise designed to give courage d) You remain a self-centered person (Correct) You may disagree with the opinions of the author, but while answering the question, please select the answer only based on the information provided in the passage. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  6. 2 TIPS on solving Listening Comprehension Questions in Online Tests Tip 1: Ensure that you are well prepared to take the Listening Comprehension Test Ensure that your audio setup is proper: 1. Your headphones work well and you’re able to hear loud and clear 2. Your System Volume setting is set to the Maximum Value 3. Please use the latest version of Chrome to ensure full browser support for playing audio clips. Keep a notebook handy: 1. Jot down quick bullet points about the audio clip as you’re listening to it. This will help you remember the clip easily so that you will not waste time replaying it multiple times. Tip 2: Read the Question first before listening to the clip Questions can be related to a specific piece of information available in the audio clip: 1. “Where is the stadium?” 2. “Who has sponsored the news report?” 3. “How many people are there in the speaker’s family?” For the illustrative questions given above, you need to listen to the clip until the specific piece of information you’re looking for is spoken out aloud. Questions can be contextual, related to the audio clip as a whole: 1. “What is the purpose of the speaker?” 2. “What is the speaker’s profession?” 3. “Where is this conversation taking place?” For the illustrative questions given above, you need to listen to the whole clip to understand the context of the speech. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  7. 2 TIPS on spotting grammatical errors in English sentences Tip 1: Go through all the Tips available for all Modules on English Grammar Spotting Grammatical Errors in English Sentences requires proficiency in English Grammar that can only be obtained by reading Grammar Tips for all the Modules on English Grammar available on Learning Pundits. https://learningpundits.com/course/4-english-grammar/ Tip 2: Rewrite the original sentence from memory on a piece of paper Most readers would not notice that the word “the” is repeated twice in the sentence above. This is because, while reading, the human brain automatically corrects minor grammatical errors. If you cannot spot the error, please commit the sentence to memory and write it down on a piece of paper. Now, compare what you have written down with the original sentence to identify the grammatical error. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  8. 3 TIPS on answering Multiple Choice Questions on Sentences & Clauses Tip 1: Go through all the Tips available for all Modules on English Grammar Proficiency in forming English Sentences requires proficiency in English Grammar that can only be obtained by reading Grammar Tips for all the Modules on English Grammar available on Learning Pundits. https://learningpundits.com/course/4-english-grammar/ Tip 2: When required to arrange jumbled words to form a meaningful sentence, it is often easier to eliminate incorrect options Question: People (P) At his dispensary (Q) Went to him (R) Of a11 professions (S) For medicine and treatment Options: A) RQSP QPRS C) QRPS D) RPQS Answer: QPRS: People went to him at his dispensary of all professions… (Incorrect) QRPS: People went to him of all professions… (Incorrect) RPQS: People of all professions at his dispensary went to him … (Incorrect) The sentences formed by options B, C and D are incoherent and can be eliminated. Thus, the right option is ‘A’: People of all professions went to him for medicine and treatment at his dispensary. Tip 3: When combining sentences to form a paragraph, ensure that there is a logical flow Question: The first and sixth sentences are already given. The four sentences in the middle have been removed and jumbled up. These are labelled as P, Q, R and S. Find out the proper order for the four sentences. 1: What are the causes of our chronic food shortage? P: To find food for these growing new millions is desperate task. Q: Every year, we add more than a crore of persons to our population. R: Despite stupendous efforts by our government, the population is growing unabated. S: The chief cause is population explosion. 6: This unprecedented growth can drag us to the doors of starvation very soon Answer: The Question in 1(“What are the causes of our chronic food shortage?“) is logically followed by S (“The chief cause is population explosion”) as the answer. After offering the answer in S, some further explanation is given in the form of Q and P. Sentence 6 speaks about “unprecedented growth” and this must be referring to the population growth referred to in R, which implies that R must immediately precede 6. Thus, the order of the sentences to form a logically coherent paragraph is 1: S, Q, P, R : 6 (contd..) Tips on Sentences & Clauses - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/31-sentences-and-clauses/1-tips-on-sentence-and-clauses/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  9. 2 TIPS on learning Idioms and Phrases Tip 1: Utilize vocabulary books and online resources Vocabulary Builder Books: 1. Word Power Made Easy - By Norman Lewis 2. 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary - By Wilfred Funk & Norman Lewis 3. How To Build A Better Vocabulary - By Maxwell Nurnberg & Morris Rosenblum 4. All About Words An Adult Approach To Vocabulary Building - By Maxwell Nurnberg & Morris Rosenblum Tip 2: Understand the meaning, the context and usage of an idiomatic expression Illustrations: A bitter pill Meaning: An unpleasant piece of information Context: Sometimes, a pill is bitter. But, it must be swallowed to improve your health. A piece of news can be unpleasant but it must be accepted and acted upon. Usage: His treachery has been a bitter pill to swallow. Ace in the hole Meaning: Possess a secret advantage Context: An expression that originates from poker, referring to possessing an Ace among the face down cards dealt to the player. Usage: Our ace in the hole left our opponents stupefied; it isn't every day that an NBA star plays street basketball. All thumbs Meaning: Behaving very clumsily Context: If a person has only a thumb and no opposing fingers, he would be very clumsy in handling objects. Usage: I am so sorry I broke your plate. I seem to be all thumbs today. (contd..) Tips on Learning Idioms & Phrases - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/28-idioms-and-phrases/1-tips-on-idioms-&-phrases/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  10. 2 TIPS on learning Homonyms and Homophones Tip 1: Understand the difference between homonyms and homophones Homonyms: Multiple meaning words. 1. The spruce tree… To spruce up… 2. Suit yourself… Wore a suit… 3. Weigh on the scale… Scale the wall… 4. The price is fair… Go to the fair… Homophones: Words that sound alike. 1. Addition for math… Edition of a book… 2. I want to go… I like it too… One plus one is two… 3. Capitol building State capital… 4. Pick a flower… Bake with flour… Tip 2: Useful online resources for learning homonyms and homophones Useful Online Resources on Homonyms & Homophones: 1. https://www.englishgrammar.org/?s=homophones 2. http://a4esl.org/q/h/homonyms.html 3. https://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/100.html LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  11. Grammar Rules with 16 Tips on using Verbs What is a Verb? Verbs are words that describe an action, an occurrence, or a state of being; mental, physical, or mechanical. Verbs form one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. Function of Verb: It answers the following questions a) What a person or thing do? She teaches in school. (active) What is done to a person or a thing? The house was cleaned. (passive) c) What is the time of action? I am going to Jaipur tomorrow. (future tense) d) What a person or thing is? My brother is a doctor. (‘be’ as an ordinary verb) Types of Verbs: 1. Auxiliary Verb (Be, Have, Do): used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a negative or a question: Does Sam write his own reports? 2. Modal Verb: Can/Could, Will/ Would, Shall/ Should, May/Might--used to express ability, possibility, permission or obligation: You can go to school. 3. Transitive Verb: action of verb transits/ passes over to an object: She ate the fruits. (fruits is ‘direct object’) 4. Intransitive Verb: action of verb does not transit/pass over to an object: The cat sneezed. 5. Stative Verb: relates to a state of being, a thought, or an emotion but not an action: He feels elated. 6. Action Verb: expresses physical or mental action: She is walking in the park. (or) He believes that it can be done. 7. Regular Verb: takes add -ed or -d to the base form of the verb to create the past forms: (Play-Played) 8. Irregular Verbs don’t take on the regular –d, -ed, or -ied spelling patterns of the past simple or past participle: (Catch-Caught) 9. Phrasal Verb: made with a main verb and another word (either a preposition or a particle) and forms a meaning different to the main verb: A burglar will often break a window to break in. 10. Finite Verb: shows tense and are conjugated to agree with the subject: She was waiting in the room. 11. Non-Finite Verb: do not show tense. They are of three types: a) Participle: usually formed by adding –ing or –ed to a verb. It functions as an adjective: The singing bird was the main attraction at the event. Gerunds: formed by adding –ing to a verb. It functions as a noun: Smoking is prohibited in the hospital. c) Infinitive: formed by using the word ‘to’ before the verb in its stem word. It functions as a noun, adjective or adverb: Shalini loves to talk. 12. Link Verb: Some verbs are followed by either a noun or an adjective: He became angry. (noun + verb + adjective) 13. Causative Verb: used to indicate that some person/thing makes, requires, forces or helps to make something happen: I made my friend write a letter. Tips on using Verbs: Tip #1: Singular-Plural Subject-Verb Agreement: Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). a) A singular subject takes a singular verb: The dog growls when he is angry. A plural subject takes a plural verb: The dogs growl when they are angry. c) Phrases between the subject and verb not affect agreement: The dog, which belongs to my relatives, usually growls at strangers. Tip #2: Verbs in Tense In the present tense: Nouns ADD an s to the singular form; Verbs REMOVE the s from the singular form. a) Singular: The dog chases the cat. Plural: The dogs chase the cat. In the simple past tense: The verb remains the same when without any helping verbs. a) Singular: The girl talked to me. Plural: The girls talked to me. Is-are, was-were, has-have, does-do: When helping verbs are used with a main verb, there must be Subject-Verb Agreement: a) Singular: The girl has talked to me. Plural: The girls have talked to me. Tip #3: Unlike, Besides, With, Except As well as, Like, Unlike, Besides, in addition to, With, Together with, Along with, and not, Rather than, No less than, Except, Nothing, No more than: When these words join two or more subjects, the verb is used according to the first subject. a) Nothing but prayer is valuable. (here prayer is in singular number so we use singular verb ‘is’) The coach as well as the players was honored by the government. (the first subject ‘coach’ is singular so we use singular verb ‘was’, not ‘were’) Tip #4: Either-Or, neither Nor Not only-But also, Either-or, Neither-nor, none-but: When these words join two or more subjects, the verb is used according to the nearest subject. a) One or two books is are needed. (Nearest subject ‘books’ is in plural so we use plural verb ‘are’) None but the students are responsible for the chaos in the class. c) Neither the class teacher nor the students were present in the assembly. Tip #5: Each, Every Each, Every, None, Anyone, Neither and Either: When these words are used as pronouns or adjectives, the following verb should be in the third person singular. a) Neither of the two workers have has come today. (Though we are talking about two workers, we still use ‘has’) None: when used with uncountable nouns, verb is singular. a) None of the information is correct. Each: when used after subject, verb is plural. a) They each are obedient. Each of the students is obedient. (Here ‘each’ is an adjective, so singular verb) Tip #6: Many A/An, More than One Many A/An, More than One: These expressions should be followed by a singular noun and singular verb. a) Many a candidate has applied for the job. (The noun ‘candidate’ and the verb ‘has’ is in singular due to use of ‘many a’) Many candidates have applied for the job. (Noun and verb both plural) c) More than one man was absent. (The noun ‘man’ and the verb ‘was’ is in singular due to use of ‘more than one’) d) More men than one were absent. (In case of ‘more men than one’, the verb is plural) Tip #7: Plural Noun (time, distance, period) Amount, Sum, Quantity, Time, period, Distance: When these are expressed using plural nouns, the following verb is singular. a) Two miles are is too far to walk. Hundred rupees is the entry fee. (‘Hundred rupees’ is considered one amount of money) c) Hundred rupees were scattered on the floor. (In this sentence, ‘hundred rupees’ is considered to be hundred individual rupee notes and not a single unit) Tip #8: Collective Noun Family, Herd, Choir, Group, Team, Group and Population: These types of collective nouns are followed by both singular and plural verbs, depending on the intent. a) The class is in session. (Here ‘class’ is referring to the whole group so we have a singular verb) The class are taking their tests today. (The ‘class’ in this sentence is referring to each member as an individual so it uses a plural verb) Tip #9: And If two subjects are joined by "and," the verb is plural: a) Bread and butter are sold here. If the two subjects separated by "and" refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular: a) Bread and butter is difficult to earn. (Here ‘bread and butter’ is a compound noun) Rice and fish is my mom's favorite dish. Tip #10: It, Here, There It: When sentence begins with ‘It’, the verb is according to the subject indicated by ‘It’). a) It is a real challenge to find a good deal on a car. (‘Finding a good deal’ is the subject which is singular) There, Here: When sentences start with “there” or “here,” the subject will always be placed after the verb and verb is conjugated in agreement with the subject. a) There is a problem with the balance sheet. Here are the papers you requested. Tip #11: Number Of, Wages, Means Number of: a) The number of musicians signing to record labels increases each year. A number of musicians intend to get a contract deal each year. Means: a) Means are more important than the ends. A fair means is more important the foul ones. Wage: a) The wages/wage in IT are/is the highest. (wage meaning rate of compensation) The wages of sin is death. (here wage means recompense or return) Tip #12: Plenty, Variety, Lot, Percentage Plenty of, Rest of, Variety of, a lot of, fraction of, Per cent of: In these cases we use singular verb with uncountable nouns and plural verb with countable nouns. a) Plenty of milk is available in the store. (Milk is uncountable so singular verb) A variety of books are available. (Books are a countable noun, so plural verb) Percent/ Percentage: a) Twenty per cent of the students have cleared the exam. The percentage of the successful candidate is low. (Verb is singular in case of percentage) Tip #13: Subjunctive Mood Subjunctive Mood: used to express things that are hypothetical, wishful, imaginary, or factually contradictory. ‘Were’ replaces ‘was’ in sentences that express a wish or are contrary to fact: a) If Ramesh were here, you'd be sorry. I wish it were Saturday. As if/As though: a) She behaves as if she was were the landlady. Tip #14: Subject-Verb Inversion Interrogation: Subject-Verb inversion happens in questions. a) What is the problem? What are the problems? c) Did he come to work on time? Inversion also happens when the sentence is introduced by adverb: a) So quickly did she finish her assignment that we were astonished. Inversion occurs when the verb is meant to be a wish or prayer: a) May you be blessed with a long life. Tip #15: Transitive, Intransitive Verbs Transitive Verb: a) Require an object Transfer their action to the object She wrote a book. (Verb ‘write’ transfers the action to single object ‘a book’) She offered him (first object) her book. (Second object). (Verb ‘offer’ transfers the action to two objects ‘him’ and ‘her book’) Intransitive Verb: a) Don’t require an object They run. (Verb ‘run’ has no object) c) She slept. (Verb ‘slept’ has no object) Tip #16: Irregular Verbs Irregular Verbs: Verbs that don’t take on the regular –d, -ed, or -ied spelling patterns of the past simple (or past participle. Base Simple past Past Participle Be Was, Were, Been Arise Arose Arisen Begin Began Begun Irregular verbs where past and past participle remain the same: Base Simple past Past Participle Bid Bid Bid Cost Cost Cost Hit Hit Hit Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Verbs. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: The percentage of successful candidates are very high. (Incorrect) The percentage of successful candidates is very high. (Correct) #2: My mother no less than my father are strict. (Incorrect) My mother no less than my father is strict. (Correct) #3: Every student and every teacher have participated in the school event. (Incorrect) Every student and every teacher has participated in the school event. (Correct) #4: Three fourths of my salary go to taxes. (Incorrect) Three fourths of my salary goes to taxes. (Correct) #5: Six months are needed to complete the assignment. (Incorrect) Six months is needed to complete the assignment. (Correct) #6: Thirty five percent of the population are educated. (Incorrect) Thirty five percent of the population is educated. (Correct) #7: A lot of my friends lives here. (Incorrect) A lot of my friends live here. (Correct) #8: She requested that he raises his hand. (Incorrect) She requested that he raise his hand. (Correct) #9: A bouquet of yellow roses lend color and fragrance to the room. (Incorrect) A bouquet of yellow roses lends color and fragrance to the room. (Correct) #10: Either Anita or Ashish are helping today with the arrangements. (Incorrect) Either Anita or Ashish is helping today with the arrangements. (Correct) #11: A scooter and a car is my means of transportation. (Incorrect) A scooter and a car are my means of transportation. (Correct) #12: Breaking and entering are against the law. (Incorrect) Breaking and entering is against the law. (Correct) #13: Neither the plates nor the serving bowl go in the dishwasher. (Incorrect) Neither the plates nor the serving bowl goes in the dishwasher. (Correct) #14: Five years are the maximum sentence for that offense. (Incorrect) Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. (Correct) #15: Here is the keys to the first floor room. (Incorrect) Here are the keys to the first floor room. (Correct) #16: I or he are to be rewarded? (Incorrect) I or he is to be rewarded? (Correct) #17: They each is honest. (Incorrect) They each are honest. (Correct) #18: Many an events have taken place in the stadium. (Incorrect) Many an event has taken place in the stadium. (Correct) #19: Plenty of information are available on the internet. (Incorrect) Plenty of information is available on the internet. (Correct) #20: At the party, they enjoyed. (Incorrect) At the party, they enjoyed themselves. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Verbs- https://learningpundits.com/module-view/19-verbs/1-tips-on-verbs/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  12. Grammar Rules and Tips for using Punctuation & Spelling What is Punctuation? Punctuation is a set of rules to place certain marks in a sentence to indicate division or pauses in that sentence, particularly in written communication. Types of Punctuation Marks: (1) Comma , (2) Full Stop or Period. (3) Semicolon ; (4) Colon: (5) Question Mark? (6) Exclamation Mark! (7) Dash and Parentheses (-) (8) Hyphen - (9) Inverted Commas or Quotation Marks “ ” Tips on using Punctuation: Tip 1: Use of Comma 1. To separate words in a list: He lost lands, money, reputation and friends. 2. To write a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition: Pandit Nehru, the first prime Minister of India, died in 1964. 3. To separate an Adverb clause when it is followed by a main clause: When the bus arrives, we will board it. 4. for co-ordinate clauses: His story was, in several ways, improbable. Sportsmen, who are generally superstitious, prefer to wear same jersey. 5. To indicate the omission of a word, especially a verb: Rama received a fountain pen; Hari, a watch. 6. To separate Nominative Absolutes: The wind being favorable, the squadron sailed. 7. To address people: How are you, Mohan? 8. To separate initials and titles: Please call on Mr. Sethi, B.A, LLB. 9. To write dates: He arrived on July 10, 2008 (but no comma required when we write 10th July 2008). NO USE of COMMA: a) When the reported speech is interrogative “Are you coming today?” she asked. When the Adjective clause is restrictive in meaning This is the house that Jack built. c) Before the word preceded by ‘and’ It was a long, dull and wearisome journey. Tip 2: Full Stop 1. To mark the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence We are leaving for Delhi Tomorrow. 2. After abbreviation and initials of names He lives in the U.S.A Mr. A.K. Sharma is our new English teacher. 3. after fractions, amounts, time and date He leaves at 8.30 a.m He was born on 4.09.2013 4. after end of address 10, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Tip 3: Semicolon & Colon Semicolon: 1. To separate the clauses of Compound sentence, when they contain a comma He was a brave, large-hearted man; and we all honored him. 2. In place of ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘because’ to mark end of one thought and continuation to another. Man proposes; God disposes. Colon: 1. before enumeration, examples, etc; as, The principal parts of a verb in English are: the present tense, the past tense, and the past participle. 2. before a long list, quotation or speech Wordsworth wrote: Child is father of man. Tip 4: Questions & Exclamation Marks Question Mark 1. after a direct question: Have you written your exercise? 2. after question tag: They can do it, can’t they? NO QUESTION MARK after an indirect question He asked me whether I had written my essay. Exclamation Mark 1. After Interjections and after Phrases and Sentences expressing joy, sorrow, pride etc Alas! -- Oh dear! What a terrible fire this is! Tip 5: Hyphen 1. To make a compound adjective qualifying a noun She is a well-known actor. 2. after prefixes to separate two vowels Co-ordinate the meeting for me. 3. To write prefixes He is the ex-principal of the college 4. To make compound numbers between 21 and 99 He is gone for twenty-four days 5. To separate or connect the parts of a compound word They conducted a door-to-door campaign. Tip 6: Quotes & Dash Quotes 1. To enclose the exact words of a speaker, or a quotation The king said “Free the prisoners”. 2. To enclose names of books, poems, essays etc. I have bought “The Mahabharata” series. 3. If quotation occurs within a quotation, it is marked by single inverted commas "You might as well say," added the March Hare, "that 'I like what I get' is the same thing as 'I get what I like’.” Dash 1. To indicate an abrupt stop or change of thought They are – I am sure – genuine people. 2. To resume a scattered subject Friends, companions, relatives - all deserted him. Tip 7: Apostrophe 1. To show possession (used with s) Give me Rohan’s bag. 2. After plural nouns of proper Nouns apostrophe is used without ‘s’ She lives in a Girls’ hostel. 3. To show the omission of a letter or letters I don’t need water. 4. To form the plural of letters and figures. You must learn the P’s and Q’s of a language NO APOSTROPHE 1. In case of non-living things The table’s wood wood of the table is shining 2. With pronouns, only ‘s’ is used. Our’s Ours is a big house Tip 8: Capitals 1. To begin a sentence. We are going to watch a movie tonight. 2. for all nouns and pronouns which indicate the Deity or even man in broader sense He is the God. We worship Him. 3. To begin all Proper Nouns and Adjectives derived from them He went to Chennai to learn more about Deccan literature. 4. To write interjections Oh! We are lost. 5. To write a reported speech She said, “I am not going.” 6. To write first person of the pronoun She hates me but I don’t hate her. Tip 9: Numerals 1. If sentence contains one series of numbers, all numbers should be written in figures She has bought 4 tables and 2 chairs. 2. If sentence contains two series of numbers, one series should be written in figures and another in words Five students have secured 90%marks and two have secured 60% 3. When one number follows another immediately, the first one should be written in words and the second in figures The plumber asked for five 4-feet long pipes 4. When a sentence begins with a number, it should be written in words Fifty people are missing following landslide in Uttarakhand. 5. Compound numbers between 21 and 99 are written in words There are fifty-three pages in this book. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a/some Punctuation mistake/s. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Maldives is a beautiful country, the beaches are warm sandy and clean. (Incorrect) Maldives is a beautiful country; the beaches are warm, sandy and clean. (Correct) #2: Prof RK Mishra will be meeting the local MLA tomorrow at 10-30 am (Incorrect) Prof. R.K. Mishra will be meeting the local M.L.A tomorrow at 10.30 a.m. (Correct) #3: Its cloudy-it may rain. (Incorrect) It is/it’s cloudy; it may rain. (Correct) #4: Please send us the following food items; Biscuits Cakes Chips, and Wafers (Incorrect) Please send us the following food items: Biscuits, Cakes, Chips and Wafers. (Correct) #5: He will succeed: you never. (Incorrect) He will succeed; you, never. (Correct) #6: “Can you help me”, he asked? (Incorrect) “Can you help me?” he asked. (Correct) #7: This house is her’s and she has chosen the wall’s colours. (Incorrect) This house is hers and she has chosen the colours of the walls. (Correct) #8: "O! God," he screamed, I have left the keys inside the car. (Incorrect) "O God!," he screamed, “I have left the keys inside the car." (Correct) #9: He is going to mumbai for 31 days. (Incorrect) He is going to Mumbai for thirty-one days. (Correct) #10: The shopkeeper asked me whether I needed 3 2-feet long rulers? (Incorrect) The shopkeeper asked me whether I needed three 2-feet long rulers. (Correct) Tips on Spelling: Tips on Spelling-Double Consonant: 1. When words end with single vowel + single consonant, double the consonant. beg + ed = begged---run + ing = running 2. When words of two or three syllables end with single vowel + single consonant, double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed. begin + ing = beginning -- occur + ed = occurred 3. Double the consonant, while adding ‘er’ or ‘est’ to make comparatives and superlatives. thin-thinner-thinnest--- fat—fatter—fattest 4. Double the consonant, when making noun from a verb. cut-cutter--run-runner 5. Double the consonant, when adding ‘Y’ to make an adjective of a noun. mud-muddy---fun-funny 6. Double the consonant when the stress is on the first syllable of words ending with ‘at, el, ip, op, il’. Travel-travelled-travelling---worship-worshipped-worshipping. NO Double Consonant: 1. If the second syllable is stressed and not the last syllable. listen-listened-listening---benefit + ed = benefited -- suffer + ing = suffering 2. When there is a suffix with a consonant. Sinful, Sadness, Childhood Tips on Spelling-Ending with ‘Y’: 1. Verbs ending with ‘y’ with a consonant before it, change from ‘y’ to ‘i’ before a suffix (ed, er) except ‘-ing’. marry-married- marrying—try-tried-trying 2. Words ending with ‘y’ with a vowel before it, do not change. Obey-obeyed-obeying—pray-prayed-praying Exception-: words like Say, Pay, Lay, etc. change only when ‘id’ ‘ly’ are added. Say-said—lay-laid—day-daily. 3. Nouns and Adjectives ending with ‘y’ with a consonant before them, change from ‘y’ to ‘i’ before a suffix (est, er, full, ly, ness, etc). sunny-sunnier-sunniest—tidy-tidier-tidiest 4. On reverse, verbs ending with ‘ie’, change to ‘y’ when suffix ‘ing’ is added. lie-lying—die-dying Tips on Spelling-Ending with ‘e’: 1. Words ending in silent ‘e’ drop the ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with a vowel. live + ing = living -- move + ed = moved 2. Words ending in silent ‘e’ drop the ‘e’ when suffix like ‘ing’, ‘able’, ‘ary’ and ‘ous’ are added. fame + ous = famous, stare + ing = staring 3. Silent ‘e’ is dropped when ‘y’ is added after a noun. taste-tasty—noise-noisy 4. Silent ‘e’ after the consonant‘t’ is dropped when the suffix ‘tion’ is added at the end. deplete + tion =depletion—pollute + tion + pollution 5. Adjectives ending with ‘le’, drop the ‘e’ when added with suffix ‘y’. subtle-subtly—sensible-sensibly 6. Silent ‘e’ is changed to ‘i’ if the word ends with ‘ce’ and the suffix ‘ous’ is added to it. malice + ous + malicious – space + ous = spacious 7. Words ending in ‘ce’ and ‘ge’ keep the ‘e’ when adding ‘able’ and ‘ous’. notice + able = noticeable--- courage + ous = courageous 8. Words ending in ‘ee’ do not drop an ‘e’ before a suffix. see + ing = seeing---agree + ment = agreement Tips on Spelling-Ending with ‘ll’, ‘n’, ‘c’: 1. When words ending with ‘ll’ are compounded with suffix ‘full’, the second ‘l’ is dropped both from the word and the suffix . skill + full = skilful -- will + full = wilful 2. When words ending with ‘ll’ are compounded with ‘un’, ‘dis’, ‘in’ or other words, ‘l’ is dropped . all + together= altogether—un + till= until 3. Adjectives ending with ‘l’ are written with ‘ll’ when suffix ‘y’ is added at end. final-finally—real-really 4. In words ending with ‘n’, the ‘n’ is retained when suffix ‘ness’ is added at the end. Keen-keenness, mean-meanness 5. When ie or ei is pronounced like ‘ee’ in ‘keep', ‘i’ comes before ‘e’. But after the letter ‘c’, we always write ‘ei’. believe – receive—relieve—conceit 6. Words ending with letter ‘c’ are changed to ‘ck’ when adding ‘ed’, ‘er’, ‘ing’. panic-panicked—picnic-picnicker Tips on Spelling-Making Plurals: 1. The Plural of nouns is generally formed by adding -s to the singular. Boy-boys---pen- pens. 2. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch (soft), -o or -x form the plural by adding -es to the singular. class—classes—box-boxes– buffalo-buffaloes 3. Few nouns ending in -o merely add –s. dynamo-dynamos—ratio - ratios; 4. Nouns ending in -y, preceded by a consonant, form their plural by changing -y into –I and adding –es. Baby—babies---lady—ladies. 5. Words ending in -f or -fe form their plural by changing ‘v’ and adding –es. Thief—thieves—wife—wives. Exception: cliff--cliffs—handkerchief—handkerchiefs– chief—chiefs 6. Few nouns form their plural by changing the inside vowel of the singular. man—men---foot—feet 7. Some nouns form their plural by adding -en to the singular. Ox—oxen—child--children. 8. Words ending with ‘y’ with a consonant before it, change from ‘y’ to ‘ies’ for plural but retain the ‘y’ if it is preceded by a vowel. country—countries—play—plays Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a/some Spelling mistake/s. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: It was the sadest day of my life when I recieved tragic news. (Incorrect) It was the saddest day of my life when I received tragic news. (Correct) #2: It occured to him last week that he was sufferring from jaundice. (Incorrect) It occurred to him last week that he was suffering from jaundice. (Correct) #3: The elder sister had an arranged marryage and the younger one is marriing by her own choice. (Incorrect) The elder sister had an arranged marriage and the younger one is marrying by her own choice. (Correct) #4: He sayed that they praid every day for his speeddy recovery. (Incorrect) He said that they prayed every day for his speedy recovery. (Correct) #5: They will be tieing the knot in a beautyful destination wedding next month. (Incorrect) They will be tying the knot in a beautiful destination wedding next month. (Correct) #6: Finaly he could fullfill his mother’s wish. (Incorrect) Finally he could fulfil his mother’s wish. (Correct) #7: He has loveing personality with some noteable qualities. (Incorrect) He has a loving personality with some notable qualities. (Correct) #8: Please give me three boxs of handkerchieves. (Incorrect) Please give me three boxes of handkerchiefs. (Correct) #9: Theater groups from various countrys are coming to present their playes in the festival. (Incorrect) Theater groups from various countries are coming to present their plays in the festival. (Correct) #10: She paniced after seing the video of the car accident. (Incorrect) She panicked after seeing the video of the car accident. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Spelling & Punctuation - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/26-spelling-and-punctuation/1-tips-on-spelling-&-punctuation/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  13. Learning Pundits

    Tips on Pronouns

    Grammar Rules with 8 Tips on using Pronouns What is a Pronoun? A pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that is used as substitute for a noun or noun phrase in a sentence. It also helps to avoid repetition of noun in a sentence. Example: a) Radhika is a singer and Radhika announced that Radhika’s music album will be released soon. (repetition of the noun ‘Radhika’ makes the sentence cumbersome) Radhika is a singer and she announced that her music album will be released soon. Basic concepts related to Pronouns: 1. Subject Pronoun replaces nouns that are the subject of their clause and can be used to begin sentences. Example: We did a great job. 2. Object Pronouns are used to replace nouns that are the direct or indirect objects of a clause. Example: Give the book to me. Antecedent is a word or phrase that a pronoun refers to. A pronoun must agree in number (singular/plural) with its antecedent. Example: Jatin threw the ball to Nitish, and Nitish threw them it back. ("the ball" is the antecedent of "it.") Forms of Pronouns: Pronouns are formed based on the following three categories: a) Person: Who is speaking? I? He? She? They? Number: Is the speaker/subject is Singular or Plural? I or We? He or They? c) Gender: Is the speaker/subject Masculine, Feminine or Neuter? He? She? It? Case of pronoun: 1. 1st person singular: a) Subject pronoun: I Object pronoun: Me c) Possessive adjective: My d) Possessive pronoun: Mine e) Reflexive pronoun: Myself 2. 1st person plural: a) Subject pronoun: We Object pronoun: Us c) Possessive adjective: Our d) Possessive pronoun: Ours e) Reflexive pronoun: Ourselves 3. 2nd person singular: a) Subject pronoun: You Object pronoun: You c) Possessive adjective: Your d) Possessive pronoun: Yours e) Reflexive pronoun: Yourself 4. 2nd person plural: a) Subject pronoun: You Object pronoun: You c) Possessive adjective: Your d) Possessive pronoun: Yours e) Reflexive pronoun: Yourselves 5. 3rd person singular: a) Subject pronoun: He/She/It Object pronoun: Him/Her/It c) Possessive adjective: His/Hers/Its d) Possessive pronoun: His/hers e) Reflexive pronoun: Himself/Herself/Itself 6. 3rd person singular: a) Subject pronoun: They Object pronoun: Them c) Possessive adjective: Their d) Possessive pronoun: Theirs e) Reflexive pronoun: Themselves Types of Pronouns: 1. Personal pronouns – words that refer to certain person, thing, or group; I, We, He, Him, She, Her, It, They etc. 2. Indefinite pronouns – words that refer to one or more vague, unspecified objects, beings, or places; Everybody, Somebody, Nobody, Several, Each, Either etc. 3. Reflexive pronouns – forms of Personal pronoun ending in –self or –selves; Myself, Yourselves, Themselves, Himself, Herself, Yourself etc. 4. Demonstrative pronouns – words used to point to something specific within a sentence; This, That, These, Those etc. 5. Possessive pronouns – words that indicate possession or ownership; Her, His, Ours, Yours, Its etc. 6. Relative pronouns – words that refer to nouns mentioned previously, acting to introduce an adjective (relative) clause; Who, Which, Whose, Whom, That etc. 7. Interrogative pronouns – words used to ask a question; Who, What, Which, Whose etc. 8. Reciprocal pronouns – words to express mutual actions or relationship; One another, One another etc. 9. Distributive pronouns – words for individuals and objects referring to them one at a time; Either, Each, Every, None, Anyone etc. Tips on using Pronouns: Tip # 1: When to use a Reflexive Pronoun Reflexive Pronouns are used after verbs when subject of the verb is receiver of the action. Avenge, Revenge, Acquit, Adjust, Adapt, Avail etc. are some of the verbs that are used reflexively. a) He resigned from the post of CEO. (No reflexive pronoun required) He resigned himself to his fate. (Here the act of resignation reflects on the subject ‘he’) Reflexive Pronouns are preceded by a noun or pronoun when acting as subject of a verb. a) I myself supervised the event. (‘I’ is precedes ‘myself’) Reflexive Pronouns are NOT used after verbs like Keep, Stop, Move, Qualify, Rest, Hide etc. a) He hid himself under the table. Tip #2: Subject Pronoun Agreement As well as, Together with, Along with, in addition to, Except, No less than: When two subjects in a sentence are joined by these words, the Possessive Pronoun is in accordance with the first subject. a) The teacher as well as the students returned to his classroom. Either-or, neither-nor, not only-But also, none-but: When two subjects in a sentence is joined by these words, the Possessive Pronoun is in accordance with the nearest subject. a) Not only the teacher but also the students returned to their classroom. Possessive Pronouns are NOT used after nouns like Leave, Excuse, Mention, Report, Sight etc. a) The thief fled at his sight at the sight of him. Tip #3: Usage of Apostrophe Apostrophe Mark: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes to show ownership. a) This book is her’s hers. This is their car. (Here ‘their’ is possessive adjective appearing before the noun ‘car’) c) This car is theirs. (Here ‘theirs’ is possessive pronoun) One: When ‘one’ is used as subject of a sentence, the Possessive pronoun should be One’s. a) One should do his one’s duty properly. Everyone should do one’s his duty properly. Tip #4: Subject-Object Singular-Plural Subjective Case of Pronoun: is used when pronoun follows the verb ‘to be’ a) It is me I who have called your mother. Objective Case of Pronoun: is used when pronoun follows and Verb or Preposition. a) They are briefing Rajiv and she her. Order of using Singular Pronouns: is second person, third person and first person (231) in a sentence. a) You, he and I will go out for dinner tonight. Order of using Plural Pronouns: is first person, second person and third person (123) in a sentence, specifically for unpleasant acts. a) We and they will both be punished. Tip #5: Either, Neither, Anyone, None Either, Neither, Anyone, Many a, Each, Every: when these are used as subject in a sentence, the Possessive Pronoun will be in Third Person Singular. a) Neither of the two sisters brought their her bags. Either, Neither, Each other: are used to refer to two persons or things. a) None neither of his legs was injured in the accident. (Used ‘neither’ in place of ‘none’ to refer to either one of the two legs) Anyone, None and One another: are used to refer to more than two persons or things. a) Students should not fight with each other one another. (Used ‘one another’ because there are more than two students) Tip #6: Pronouns in Interrogative Sentences The pronoun in the question tag should be in agreement with subject in the main sentence. a) Samaira is intelligent, isn’t it she? (Note that ‘she’ is used in place of ‘it’ as per the subject ‘Samaira’ and if the main sentence is in affirmative, the following question tag is in negative) Hardly, Seldom, Barely, Scarcely, Few, Little: if these words are used to make a negative sentence, then the following question tag will be affirmative. a) She is seldom late, isn’t is she? Everyone, Everyone, Somebody, Someone, Anybody and None etc.: for these Indefinite Pronouns, ‘they’ is used in the question tag. a) Everyone can succeed, can’t they? Tip #7: Both, Same Both: is not used in negative sense and is followed by ‘and’ in place of ‘as well as’ 1. Both you as well as and your brother are going to high school next year. a) Both of them are not going to high school. (Incorrect) Neither of them is going to high school. (Correct) Same: is not to be used as a pronoun. a) He bought a house and living in the same it. Tip #8: Who, Which, Whom, What Which: is used to make a choice between more than two persons or things. a) Of the three sisters who which is the better singer? Who: as a Relative Pronoun is used as a Subject of a verb in the adjective clause. a) He is a kind of person who, everybody knows, is generous. Whom: as a Relative Pronoun is used as an Object of a verb in the adjective clause. a) A man, whom I have never seen before, was asking about you. What: as a Pronoun is used without antecedent and is used to refer to things only. a) It is incredible what she saw. The movie what that she saw was incredible. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Pronouns. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: He has himself qualified for the job. (Incorrect) He has himself qualified for the job. (Correct) #2: They enjoyed during the winter vacation. (Incorrect) They enjoyed themselves during the winter vacation. (Correct) #3: It will be her who will help you in the kitchen. (Incorrect) It will be she who will help you in the kitchen. (Correct) #4: Yourself chose this path. (Incorrect) You yourself chose this path. (Correct) #5: She has brought sweets for you and I. (Incorrect) She has brought sweets for you and me. (Correct) #6: Neither the players nor the coach was playing in their uniform. (Incorrect) Neither the players nor the coach was playing in his uniform. (Correct) #7: She did your mention during the speech. (Incorrect) She did make mention of you during the speech. (Correct) #8: I and you will go to market tomorrow. (Incorrect) You and I will go to market tomorrow. (Correct) #9: My brother along with his friends is launching their new store next month. (Incorrect) My brother along with his friends is launching his new store next month. (Correct) #10: They and we will not be traveling together. (Incorrect) We and they will not be traveling together. (Correct) #11: Either of the four tires must be damaged. (Incorrect) Anyone of the four tires must be damaged. (Correct) #12: Each one of us should count our bags properly before boarding. (Incorrect) Each one of us should count his/her bags properly before boarding. (Correct) #13: Few men are participating in the blood donation camp, isn’t he? (Incorrect) Few men are participating in the blood donation camp, are they? (Correct) #14: They did not go to Goa for vacations, isn’t it? (Incorrect) They did not go to Goa for vacations, did they? (Correct) #15: Both Reena as well as Sejal are appearing for exams next year. (Incorrect) Both Reena and Sejal are appearing for exams next year. (Correct) #16: I don’t believe in the words what he said. (Incorrect) I don’t believe in the words which/that he said. (Correct) #17: I don’t believe in which he said. (Incorrect) I don’t believe in what he said. (Correct) #18: Please mail it to I. (Incorrect) Please mail it to me. (Correct) #19: Every policeman and every fireman was in their place. (Incorrect) Every policeman and every fireman was in his place. (Correct) #20: The horse fell and broke her leg. (Incorrect) The horse fell and broke its leg. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Pronouns - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/22-pronouns/1-tips-on-pronouns/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  14. Grammar Rules with 7 Tips on using Present Tense Classifying Tenses: Tense is a form of Verb which indicates the time and state of and action or event. Classifying tenses based on the Time of Action: a) He writes letters. (Present Tense: Now- Present time of an action) He wrote letters. (Past Tense: Before Now- Past time of an action) c) He will write letters. (Future Tense: After Now- Future time of an action) Classifying Tenses based on the state of Action: 1. Simple: a) Present: Sings Past: Sang c) Future: Will Sing 2. Continuous (Progressive action): a) Present: Is singing Past: Was singing c) Future: Will be singing 3. Perfect (Completed action): a) Present: Has sung Past: Had sung c) Future: Will have sung 4. Perfect continuous (Progressive action that is ongoing): a) Present: Has been singing Past: Had been singing c) Future: Will have been singing Simple Present: Used to denote habit, custom, practice, permanent activity or general truth. 1. For habitual, repeated actions: a) We catch the bus every morning at 8:00 AM. He drinks tea at breakfast. 2. For general truths: Water freezes at zero degrees. 3. For Instructions: Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water. 4. For Scheduled Events in the Future: His mother arrives tomorrow. 5. To express a future action after conjunctions like after, when, before, as soon as, until: She will see you before she leaves. 6. Narrating a story: Now Rama shoots an arrow at Ravan. Present Continuous: Used for an on-going action in the present or at the time of speaking. 1. A progressive action in the present: It is raining outside. 2. With the adverb ‘always’: He is always watching TV. 3. For Scheduled Events in the Future: The train is arriving in 2 minutes. 4. For indicating negatives: Caroline is not looking for the latest brochure. 5. For interrogatives: Is Caroline looking for the latest brochure? Present Perfect: Used to indicate a link between the present and the past where the action is already completed in the past or still continuing into the present. 1. An action that was completed in the recent past: I have just eaten breakfast. 2. An action that started in the past but is still ongoing: a) I have lived in Bristol since 1984. [Correct: Indicates that I am still living in Bristol] I lived in Bristol since 1984. [Incorrect: Indicates that I am no longer living in Bristol] 3. An action in an unspecified period between the past and now: We have visited Portugal before. 4. A completed action where the time of the action is unimportant: He has read War and Peace. 5. Action performed during a period of time that is not yet finished: She has been to the cinema twice this week. Present Perfect Continuous: Used to imply the duration of an action that has started in the past and continuing in the present or may have just finished. 1. An action that was completed in the recent past: She has been cooking since last night. 2. An action that started in the past but is still ongoing: a) I have been living in Bristol since 1984. [Correct: Indicates that I am still living in Bristol] I was living in Bristol since 1984. [Incorrect: Indicates that I am no longer living in Bristol] c) She has been waiting for you all day. 3. To indicate a negative: Amanda has not been relying on student loans to fund her education. 4. For Interrogatives: Has Amanda been relying on student loans to fund her education? Tips on using Present Tense: Tip #1: Since, For Since: to show a particular time or event from past to present. Used both for present perfect and for present perfect continuous. a) They’ve been staying with us since last week. She has completed two letters since last night. For: used to indicate a period of time from past to present in present perfect continuous form. a) She has been suffering from fever for two days. It’s been raining for hours. Tip #2: Ever, Never Ever: generally used with present perfect tense a) My last birthday was the worst day I have ever had. Have you ever seen a ghost? Never: used as the negative form for the adverb ‘ever ‘in present perfect a) Have you ever met George? Yes, but I’ve never met his wife. Tip #3: Seldom, Often, Generally Adverbs of Frequency such as, often, generally, regularly, seldom, occasionally, rarely, daily, normally, always are used in Simple present tense to depict a habit or action and its frequency. a) Grandfather regularly goes for a walk in the morning. Subir seldom gets up late. c) Pearl usually believes everybody. d) Arnav often comes for dinner to our place. Tip #4: Always Simple Present Tense: here ‘always’ is used as an adverb of frequency, meaning ‘all the time’. a) Suhani always comes in time. I always travel by bus. Present Continuous Tense: here the adverb ‘always’ is used to express an idea that the speaker doesn’t like. a) She is always scolding her children. He is always using junk food. Tip #5: Just, Recently, Already Just, Recently, Already: these time adverbials are used in Present Perfect to refer to actions that have just completed. a) Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of monkey. We have just got back from our holidays. c) I have already had my breakfast. Tip #6: Adverbials of the past Adverbials of Past: do not use the present perfect with an adverbial of the past. a) I have seen that film yesterday. (Wrong) I had seen that film yesterday. c) We have bought a new car last week. (Wrong) d) We had bought a new car last week. It can be used to refer to a time which is not yet finished: a) Have you seen Helen today? We have bought a new car this week. Tip #7: Non-Progressive Verbs Non-progressive verbs: Verbs that describe a state of existence (not an action) are not used with an ‘ing’. a) Verbs of Perception: See, Taste, Smell, Prefer, Please, Look, Seem, Appear Verbs of Thinking: Think, Know, Mean, Mind c) Verbs showing Possession: Own, Have, Belong, Comprise, Possess, Contain d) Verbs of Feeling: Believe, Like, Love, Want, Desire e) He is owning a car. (Wrong) => He owns a car. (Correct) f) She is liking this song. (Wrong) => She likes this song. (Correct) When used as a verb indicating an action in progress, these verbs do take an ‘ing’: State of Existence: a) I think he’s really nice. We have a small flat. c) The soup tastes delicious. d) This perfume smells great. e) Velvet feels so soft. f) You look tired. g) The baby weighs 3 kgs. h) I am hungry. Action in Progress a) I’m thinking of selling my car. We are having some difficulties right now. c) The cook is tasting the soup. d) The girl is smelling the flowers. e) We were feeling our way in the dark. f) They are looking at the pictures. g) The grocer is weighing the apples. h) You’re being a nuisance. Spot the Errors: Can you spot the errors? #1: These grapes are tasting sour. (Incorrect) These grapes taste sour. (Correct) #2: I am thinking you are wrong. (Incorrect) I think you are wrong. (Correct) #3: She is seeming sad. (Incorrect) She seems sad. (Correct) #4: He is having a cellular phone. (Incorrect) He has a cellular phone. (Correct) #5: I think of going to Malaysia. (Incorrect) I am thinking of going to Malaysia. (Correct) #6: She tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. (Incorrect) She is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. (Correct) #7: They have lunch. (Incorrect) They are having lunch. (Correct) #8: It is smelling like something is burning. (Incorrect) It smells like something is burning. (Correct) #9: Are you forgetting my name? (Incorrect) Have you forgotten my name? (Correct) #10: I am not meaning this. (Incorrect) I don’t mean this. (Correct) #11: We have just returned from a pilgrimage last month. (Incorrect) We have just returned from a pilgrimage. (Correct) #12: Today was the happiest day I ever had. (Incorrect) Today was the happiest day I’ve ever had. (Correct) #13: The train will leave at 19:45 this evening. (Incorrect) The train leaves at 19:45 this evening. (Correct) #14: The book is containing good subject matter. (Incorrect) The book contains good subject matter. (Correct) #15: You studying English Grammar. (Incorrect) You are studying English Grammar. (Correct) #16: I know all about that film because I had seen it twice. (Incorrect) I know all about that film because I have seen it twice. (Correct) #17: I did a lot of work today but I must keep at it. (Incorrect) I have done a lot of work today but I must keep at it. (Correct) #18: He has been sleeping since five hours. (Incorrect) He has been sleeping for five hours. (Correct) #19: Now Netaji entered and addressed the freedom fighters. (Incorrect) Now Netaji enters and addresses the freedom fighters. (Correct) #20: I am having no house to live in. (Incorrect) I have no house to live in. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on present Tense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/10-present-tense/1-tips-on-present-tense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  15. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Prepositions What is a Preposition? A Preposition indicates relationships between two nearby words (between a noun or pronoun and other parts of the sentence) in a sentence and usually appears before a noun or a pronoun. Example: Let's meet near the shopping mall. (Near is a preposition; shopping mall is its object) Forms of Prepositions: a) Prepositions of Place tell you where something happened. Example: We saw a movie at the theater. Prepositions of Time when something happened. Example: We saw the movie at 3.30 this afternoon. c) Prepositions also indicate direction, spatial relationships, as well as other abstract types of relationships. Example: Look to the left and you’ll see the movie theater. d) Some prepositions are two or three word phrases known as Complex Prepositions or Prepositional Phrases. Example: He got the job in spite of his poor results. Prepositions of Place: 1. In: This is used to indicate a place inside a room, house, town, city etc a) I watch TV in the living room. I live in New Delhi. 2. At: An exact position or place or event a) She met him at the concert. I met him at the door. 3. On: Above a surface, a particular side, a floor in the house, for television etc. a) My apartment is on the third floor. I watched the Mahabaratha on TV. 4. From: In the sense of ‘where from’ a) I bought dresses from the mall. 5. Under/ Below: Lower or above something a) The birds are flying below the clouds. 6. By/ Near/ Beside/ Next to: Adjacent to something a) Dilip is waiting by the car. 7. Over: exceeding, overcoming an obstacle, above a) They climbed over the wall to flee. He is over 70 years old. Prepositions of Time: 1. At: A certain point in time a) I will meet you at lunch time. 2. On: Days, weekends. a) What are you doing on Sunday? 3. In: Certain periods of time, months, seasons, mornings etc. a) It gets cold in winter. 4. Since/ For: From a certain point in time in the past till now. a) He has been living in Jaipur since 2010. She has been sleeping for more than ten hours. 5. Ago: A certain time in the past a) He came to Jaipur two years ago. 6. Before: Earlier than a certain point in time a) He goes for a walk before dawn. 7. From: The time when something starts a) The shop remains open from 9:30 AM till 10:00 PM. 8. Till/ Until: up to a certain point in time a) He waited until half past six. 9. By: Not later than; at or before a) He returns from school by 5 o’clock. Other Types of Prepositions: 1. Off: Leaving a public transport vehicle a) She got off the train. 2. Of: Expressing amount or ownership a) She is a friend of mine. Show her the picture of the palace. 3. Out of: Leaving a vehicle or a building a) She got out of the lift in a hurry. 4. About: Dealing with a certain topic a) We were talking about the movie. 5. By: a method of travelling; indicating the creator; indicating a change/ progression a) This book was written by Ruskin Bond. Prices have risen by 2.5 percent. 6. At: Indicating age a) She learned to drive at 65. 7. On: A method of travelling a) He got there by foot. Please get on the bus before it starts. 8. From: expressing origin or a change in state a) It is a gift from Ashish. The fever went from bad to worse. 9. In: Entering a car/ taxi a) I asked her to get in the car. Tips on using Prepositions: Tip #1: What follows a Preposition? Preposition is ALWAYS followed by: a) Noun: The coffee is on the table. Proper noun: He is going to Raipur. c) Pronoun: Mahesh gave it to them. d) Noun group: I took a drive with my new car. e) Gerund: He went crazy on hearing the news. Preposition is NEVER followed by a verb: If a Preposition is followed by a verb, then it should be in ‘-ing’ form, which means a gerund or verb in noun form. a) I always dream about winning the lottery. Tip #2: Cases where a Preposition is not followed by an object A. The object in interrogative pronoun is understood: 1) That is something with which I cannot agree. (Incorrect) 2) That is something I cannot agree with. (Correct) B. The object of the preposition is relative pronoun ‘that’: 1) This is the book of that he always talks. (Incorrect) 2) This is the book that he always talks of. (Correct) C. Preposition is placed after the infinitive if the infinitive qualifies the noun: 1) He gave me a pen to write. (Incorrect) 2) He gave me a pen to write with. (Correct) Tip #3: Preposition with Pronouns Preposition with Pronouns: If object of the preposition is a pronoun then it should be in the objective form (me, her and them), not subjective form (I, she and they). a) This is from my wife and I. (Incorrect) This is from my wife and me. (Correct) Tip #4: Omission of Preposition Await, Lack, Regret, Concern, Board, Ensure, Affect, Sign, Join, Direct, Order, befall, Eschew, Attack, Invade, Resist, Resign, Reach, Succeed, Precede, Pervade, Resemble, Demand, Consider, Violate, Accompany, Comprise, Investigate, Discuss, Enter, Stress, Emphasize: When these verbs are used in active form NO Preposition is used after them. a) She resembles with her sister. I will discuss about the subject with the teacher. Omission of Preposition ‘to’: When verbs of communication like ‘advise, tell, ask, beg, command’ etc. are used before an object, then ‘to’ should not be used with the verb. a) I advised to him to go. Tip #5: Since ‘Since’ as a Preposition: is used to express some definite time from the past till the present. a) The person is missing since last Monday. ‘Since’ as a Conjunction: joining two sentence clauses a) Many things have changed since I left the city. Since you will not work, you shall not eat. (as conjunction meaning ‘because’) ‘Since’ as Adverb: is used to express ‘from a time in the past till now’. a) He left the city in 1998 and I have not seen him since. Tip #6: To & Beside ‘To’ as a Preposition: a) I am used to driving. ‘To’ as an Infinitive: a) I love to drive. (here the verb ‘drive’ is in its basic form and is not the main verb, so it is an infinitive preceded by ‘to) ‘Beside’ and ‘Besides’: a) She sat beside the table. (here ‘beside ‘ means near) Besides Bharatnatyam she also learning Kathak. (here ‘besides’ means in addition to) Tip #7: On Vs. In and Upon ‘On’ and ‘In’: ‘In’ is used to refer to ‘by end of the specified time’ whereas ‘On’ is used to denote the exact time, neither before nor after. a) The train will leave in ten minutes. The train is on time. ‘On’ and ‘upon’: ‘On’ and ‘upon’ are prepositions that convey same meaning and can be used interchangeably. However, in some cases ‘on’ is used to denote position where as ‘upon’ is used to denote some movement. a) The pillow is on the bed. He threw the pillow upon the bed. ‘On’ as preposition of Time and Place: a) The shop remains closed on Sunday. (Time) The shop is on the right. (Place) Tip #8: In Vs. Into, At and Within ‘In’ and ‘at’: ‘In’ is used in wider and bigger sense of town, cities, countries etc. But ‘At’ is used to denote comparatively smaller places. a) She lives at Laketown in Kolkata. (Kolkata is a big city but ‘Laketown’ is a small locality.) ‘In’ and ‘into’: ‘In’ is used to denote position whereas ‘Into’ is used to express motion toward something. a) I live in this house. (‘In’ refers to the position where I live.) I walked into the house. (‘Into’ refers to my movement towards the house) ‘In’ and ‘within’: ‘In’ is used to refer to the end of a specific time, whereas ‘Within’ is used to denote ‘before the end of specified time’. a) He will return in five minutes. He will return within five minutes. Tip #9: Preposition or Adverb? Identify Preposition from Adverb: A preposition always has an object. An adverb never has an object. a) Please come in the kitchen. (Preposition ‘in’ has object ‘the kitchen’) Please come in. (adverb ‘in’ has no object; it qualifies the verb ‘come’) Tip #10: By & With ‘By’ and ‘With’: a) He struck the bird with an arrow. (‘With’ is used to denote instrument, equipment) The bird was struck by the archer. (‘By’ is used for the ‘doer’ of the action) Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Prepositions. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: He ordered for the employee’s transfer. (Incorrect) He ordered the employee’s transfer. (Correct) #2: I am concerned with your health. (Incorrect) I am concerned for your health. (Correct) #3: Ravi is more concerned for getting the job done. (Incorrect) Ravi is more concerned with getting the job done. (Correct) #4: I left home at Monday morning to catch a flight for Bangalore. (Incorrect) I left home on Monday morning to catch a flight to Bangalore. (Correct) #5: He is one of the best players from India and he takes pride of it. (Incorrect) He is one of the best players in India and he takes pride in it. (Correct) #6: I look forward to see you. (Incorrect) I look forward to seeing you. (Correct) #7: I dived in the water. (Incorrect) I dived into the water. (Correct) #8: The road repair work disrupted the traffic from two days. (Incorrect) The road repair work disrupted the traffic for two days. (Correct) #9: I informed to the police of the burglary. (Incorrect) I informed to the police of the burglary. (Correct) #10: The lion attacked on the deer. (Incorrect) The lion attacked on the deer. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Prepositions - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/20-prepositions/1-tips-on-prepositions/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  16. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips for using Past Tense Classifying Tenses: Tense is a form of Verb which indicates the time and state of and action or event. Classifying tenses based on the Time of Action: a) He writes letters. (Present Tense: Now- Present time of an action) He wrote letters. (Past Tense: Before Now- Past time of an action) c) He will write letters. (Future Tense: After Now- Future time of an action) Classifying Tenses based on the state of Action: 1. Simple: a) Present: sings Past: sang c) Future: will sing 2. Continuous (progressive action): a) Present: is singing Past: was singing c) Future: will be singing 3. Perfect (completed action): a) Present: has sung Past: had sung c) Future: will have sung 4. Perfect Continuous (progressive action that is ongoing): a) Present: has been singing Past: had been singing c) Future: will have been singing Simple Past: Used to describe a completed activity that happened in the past a) Simple fact- happened once: We went to Spain for our holidays. Frequency: When I was a boy I walked a mile to school every day. c) Duration: I lived abroad for ten years. d) Definite and Indefinite Point in Time: I went to the theatre last night. (Definite) People lived in caves a long time ago. (Indefinite) e) Negative version- use didn’t (did not): I didn’t see you yesterday. f) Interrogative version-use did : Where did you go for your holidays? Past Continuous: Describes actions or events which began in the past and continued for a period of time. Also used to set the scene for another action. a) Unfinished action -interrupted by another action: I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang. Two actions- happening at same time: While they were painting the door, I was cleaning the doors. c) Repeated actions: They were always quarrelling. d) Story Telling: The sun was shining and the birds were singing. e) Show change or growth: Her English was improving. Past Perfect: Used to emphasize that an action was already completed with reference to another event in the past. a) Actions completed: I had finished the work. One event happened before another: The weather changed, but the team had planned its next move. c) Reporting: Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping. d) Conditions, hypotheses and wishes: I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month. e) Negative and Interrogative version: The weather changed, and the team had not planned its next move. Had the team planned its next move before the weather changed? Past Perfect Continuous: Used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued for a while in the past but had ended before that point in time. a) Actions that started in the past and continued for a while: Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours. Repeated actions that continue after that point: He had been playing guitar ever since he was a teenager. c) Duration- using Since: They had been staying with us for over a month. d) To indicate a negative: She had not been painting the door. e) For Interrogatives: Had she been painting the door? Tips on using Past Tense: Tip #1: Just Just: used with the Past Perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before. Formation: Had + Past Perfect +Just Example: a) The train had just left when I arrived at the station. She had just left the room when the police arrived. c) I had just put the washing out when it started to rain. Tip #2: Wonder Wonder: used to make a very polite request in Past Continuous form, although the request is being made in the present. Formation: Past form of ‘be’ verb + wondering Example: I was wondering if you could babysit for me tonight. Tip #3: Ago Ago: a useful way of expressing the distance into the past. It is placed after the period of time Formation: period of time + ago A week ago, three years ago, a minute ago. Example: a) I met him two months ago. Two weeks ago they moved to a new place. Tip #4: Did Did: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past, use 'did'. a) Did he go to the cinema last night? He didn't go to bed early last night. c) We didn't do our homework last night. d) Did you do much climbing in Switzerland? When the question statement does not use subject-verb inversion, do not use ‘did’. a) Who did discover India? (incorrect) Who discovered India? (correct) Tip #5: If If: used in the past perfect talking about something which did not happen in the past. a) If we hadn’t spent all our money, we could take a holiday. If I had had time, I would have been able to complete this task. Tip #6: Wish Wish: is used with other verbs (which are in the past perfect) to talk about wishes for the past. a) I wish I had worked harder when I was at school. I wish it had snowed yesterday. Wish is used with other verbs (which are in past tense forms) to talk about wishes for the present. a) I wish it wasn’t so cold. I wish I had more money. Tip #7: Seldom, Often, Generally Adverbs of Frequency such as, often, generally, regularly, seldom, occasionally, rarely, would, used to, always are used in Simple Past Tense to depict a habit or action and its frequency. a) They never drank wine. He always carried an umbrella. c) I used to go to Mumbai by train. d) She would go there daily. Tip #8: Since, Before, Last Definite point of time in the past: is denoted by words like since, earlier, ever since, last, back, yesterday, the other day etc for Simple Past Tense. a) I met your brother yesterday. She went to Spain last month. c) The other day when I went to market, I met John. d) Ever since I met you I've liked you. Tip #9: Ever, Already, Yet Ever, Before, Already, Yet, After, By the time, So far, Till are used to imply/indicate preceding action in Past Perfect Tense. a) I had already taken breakfast. I had finished the book before he came. c) I had returned from college then. d) I finished my homework after I had returned from school. Tip #10: Want, Hope, Expect Want, Hope, Expect, Intend, Mean Suppose and Think: when used in Past Perfect tense, these words indicate that the action intended did not take place. a) I had wanted to help my brother. (But could not help) I had expected to pass. c) My sister had hoped that her friend would help her. d) Mihir had intended to set up his own business. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Past Tense. #1: She has bought a car two years ago. (Incorrect) She had bought a car two years ago. (Correct) #2: The house was belonging to him. (Incorrect) The house belonged to him. (Correct) #3: She swept the floor when I called on her. (Incorrect) She was sweeping the floor when I called on her. (Correct) #4: He didn’t knew the answer. (Incorrect) He didn’t know the answer. (Correct) #5: She had been knowing him for two years. (Incorrect) She had known him for two years. (Correct) #6: The light went out while I read a book. (Incorrect) The light went out while I was reading a book. (Correct) #7: I breaked my arm when I was 12. (Incorrect) I broke my arm when I was 12. (Correct) #8: Where was you last weekend? (Incorrect) Where were you last weekend? (Correct) #9: She was owning this flat in Mumbai for ten years but never telled any one. (Incorrect) She owned this flat in Mumbai for ten years but never told anyone. (Correct) #10: The movie already started when we entered the theater. (Incorrect) The movie had already started when we entered the theater. (Correct) #11: What was the policeman doing when the accident was happening? (Incorrect) What was the policeman doing when the accident happened? (Correct) #12: He has been going to college since August but then stopped attending classes. (Incorrect) He had been going to college since August but then stopped attending classes. (Correct) #13: All the students listening to the professor carefully when the bell rang. (Incorrect) All the students were listening to the professor carefully when the bell rang. (Correct) #14: It rained when we left the apartment, so we took the umbrella. (Incorrect) It was raining when we left the apartment, so we took the umbrella. (Correct) #15: She constantly sang. (Incorrect) She was constantly singing. (Correct) #16: I was living abroad for ten years. (Incorrect) I lived abroad for ten years. (Correct) #17: I meet my wife a long time ago. (Incorrect) I met my wife a long time ago. (Correct) #18: The other day I am waiting for a bus when… (Incorrect) The other day I was waiting for a bus when… (Correct) #19: I would have helped him if he was asking. (Incorrect) I would have helped him if he had asked. (Correct) #20: We not got home until very late last night. (Incorrect) We didn’t get home until very late last night. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Past Tense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/11-past-tense/1-tips-on-past-tense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  17. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Nouns What is a Noun? A noun is a word that denotes the name and quality of a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Functions of Noun: a) Noun as a subject: tells us what that sentence is all about. Harish plays with a cricket bat. Noun as a direct object: receives action from verbs. Harish plays with a cricket bat. c) Noun as an indirect object: receives the direct object. Harish threw Arun the ball. d) Noun as the object of a preposition: follows the prepositions in prepositional phrases. John threw the ball at Arun. e) Noun as a predicate nominative: follows linking verbs and renames the subject. Harish is a cricket player. f) Noun as an object complement: completes the direct object. They named their dog Rusty. g) Noun as an appositive: renames other nouns. My friend Harish likes to play cricket. Types of Nouns: a) Abstract noun names an idea, event, quality, or concept that can’t be seen or touched. (Bravery, determination, freedom, love, courage, joy etc.) Concrete noun can be seen or touched and is recognizable through the senses. (Tree, hammer, table, dog, house etc.) c) Collective noun denotes a group of things or people as a unit. (Team, choir, pack, family, flock, audience etc.) d) Common noun is the name of a class or a group of similar things. (Girl, boy, dog, table, book, window etc.) e) Proper noun refers to the given name of a single person, place or thing. Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. (New Delhi, Himalayas, New York etc.) f) Compound nouns refer to two or more nouns combined to form a single noun. (Rainfall, bedroom, passer-by, sister-in-law, schoolboy, fruit juice etc.) g) Countable nouns can be counted and they have a singular and a plural form. (Books, cars, dogs, friends, chairs, houses, boys etc.) h) Uncountable nouns can't be counted and can only be used in the singular form. (Milk, food, music, money, bread, water, coffee etc.) i) Animate noun refers to a person, animal, or other creature. (Bird, man, elephant, chicken etc.) j) Inanimate or Material noun refers to a material object. (Gold, stone, wood, table etc.) k) Possessive noun shows ownership or a relationship of belonging between one thing and another using apostrophe with‘s’. (Jeet’s car, mother’s house, day’s work etc.) l) Verbal noun is derived from verbs but has no verb-like properties. (A good building, a fine drawing etc.) m) Singular noun refers to one person, place, idea or thing. (Man, box, hand etc.) n) Plural noun refers to more than one person, place, idea or thing and generally ends with‘s’ except for Irregular Nouns. (Men, boxes, hands etc.) o) Gendered noun shows Masculine, Feminine, Common and Neuter gender by different forms or different words when referring to people or animals. (Example of Masculine-Feminine are: man-woman, father-mother and rooster-hen. Nouns like cousin, teenager, teacher, doctor, student and friend are Common Gender, can be used for either a masculine or a feminine context. Neuter Gender denotes a thing that is neither male nor female like book, pen etc.) Capitalization of Nouns: 1. When noun is at beginning of a sentence. Dogs are barking. 2. Always use capital letters for Proper Nouns: capital letters for the names of people, places, planets, titles of rank or relationship (when joined to person’s name, e.g., Sergeant Singh, Uncle Tom), months, holidays, departments, clubs, companies, institutions, bridges, buildings, monuments, parks, ships, hotels, streets, historical events, documents, titles of books, works and movies, months of the year, days of the week, holidays and names of countries, continents, rivers, cities, towns etc. 3. Do not use a capital letter for a common noun unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. Examples: a) The next church the tourists visited was the Church of England. (The word ‘church’ is a common noun. Church of England is a proper noun and is the name of the particular church.) The day is celebrated as Friendship Day. (‘day’ is common noun but ‘Friendship Day’ is proper noun) Tips on using Nouns: Tip #1: Advices, an Advice, Some Advice Advice, Employment, Information, Equipment and Machinery: Uncountable Nouns like these are used in singular form only. § I don’t like taking advices. Indefinite article is not used before Uncountable nouns. a) She gave me an information. She gave me a piece of information. (Indefinite article used to denote singularity) c) Remain true to your words. (‘Word’ in sense of message, discussion, promise) ‘Much’ and ‘some’ is used to denote Plurality in place of ‘Many’. He gave me some advice. Tip #2: Collective Noun Team Staff, Herd, Committee, House, Jury, Family, Mob, Crowd, Board, Police and Public: These Collective Nouns can be singular or plural depending on the context of the sentence. Singular: Used with a singular verb when they focus on the individual elements acting together as one unit. The audience was spellbound. (Here ‘audience’ is a single unit) Plural: Used with plural verb when they focus on the individuals among the group. The audience were asked to take their seats. (Here ‘audience’ is seen as many individuals) Cattle, Gentry, Peasantry, Poultry, Clergy, People, Majority and People: these are always used with a plural verb. Cattles are grazing in the field. Tip #3: Plural Nouns with Singular Verb News, Series, Innings and Summons: Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb. News is broadcasted in the evening. Branches of Learning: Mathematics, Physics, Economics, Statistics (as subject, not collection of data) Mechanics is gaining popularity. Games and Sports: Billiards, Athletics, Aquatics, Gymnastics Athletics is encouraged among kids. Diseases: Mumps, Measles, Rickets Is Mumps a contagious disease? Titles of Books: The Three Musketeers, Arabian Nights Gulliver’s Travels is my favorite book. Descriptive Names of Countries: United States, Unites Arab Emirates The United States is a great country to live in. Tip #4: Plural Nouns with Plural Verb Thanks, Proceeds, Alms, Riches, Contents, Orders, Manners, Servings, Ashes, Archives, Rations, Customs and Requirements: Some nouns have a fixed plural form and take a plural verb. a) Savings are deposited in the bank. Statistics are collected from surveys. (Here ‘statistics’ is not a subject but collection of data) Articles of Dress: Trousers, Breaches, Jeans. a) My trousers are too tight. Her jeans are blue. Names of Instruments: Scissors, Spectacles, Shears, Scales. a) Those glasses are his. Scissors are made of metal. Tip #5: Nouns with Numbers Numerical + Noun: when a Compound Noun is made of numerical and acts as an Adjective, it is used as a Singular noun. a) It is a ten-mile race. Give me a five-rupee note. Nouns expressing number: used in singular with numerical adjectives. a) Give me two dozens apples. I gave him two hundreds rupees. Use of Fractions: With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder—if the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb. a) One-third of the city is unemployed. One-third of the people are unemployed. Tip #6: Possessive Noun with Apostrophe and ‘S’ If the noun is plural, or already ends in‘s’, just add an apostrophe after the‘s’:. a) Which way is the Girls’ hostel? I have a complete collection of Kalidas’ works. In Compound Noun, apostrophe with‘s’ should be added with last word only. She went to her mother’s-in-law’s place. Apostrophe is not used with Pronouns but‘s’ is retained. We write ‘yours truly’ at end of letters. Tip #7: Possessive Noun with and, Else Two nouns in possessive case joined by ‘and’ denote plural: Sumeet’s and Raghav’s mothers are coming to meet the teacher. (the mother of Sumeet and Raghav, two different persons.) Two nouns joined by ‘and’ but only one is in possessive case, it denotes singular: Sumeet and Raghav’s mother is coming to meet the teacher. (the mother of two brothers Sumeet and Raghav, same person.) ‘Else’ takes the apostrophe with‘s’ when combined with Indefinite Pronouns: a) This is somebody else’s book. Whose else can it be? [Note: Possessive case of “Who else” is “Whose else” and NOT “Who else’s”] Tip #8: With Adjective and Preposition Two adjectives with different meanings but both qualifying the same noun are considered plural and used with plural verbs: a) Social and political scenario are changing in the country. Summer and winter vacations are planned before the beginning of a new session. If a noun is repeated after a preposition, the noun will be in singular form. a) We went door to doors looking for the boy. She took the notes of the lecture’s speech, word for word. Tip #9: Making Plurals Irregular Nouns make plurals without adding ‘s’ to it: woman-women, child-children, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, wife-wives, cactus-cacti, diagnosis-diagnoses, oasis-oases, thesis-theses, crisis-crises, phenomenon-phenomena, datum- data, criterion- criteria, life-lives, elf-elves, loaf-loaves, potato-potatoes, tomato- tomatoes, focus-foci, fungus- fungi, nucleus-nuclei, syllabus-syllabi/syllabuses, analysis- analyses. a) The king had four wives. She is his wife. Some irregular nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural: Sheep-Sheep, Deer-Deer, Species-Species and Aircraft- Aircraft a) Ten aircraft are waiting on the tarmac. The aircraft is waiting for take-off. Tip #10: Change in Meaning with Plural Some Noun take different meaning when converted to plural adding‘s’: a) water: material; waters: sea Asset: quality; assets: property c) Wood: material; woods: property d) Custom: ritual; customs: tax e) Arm: organ; arms: weapon f) Cloth: material; clothes: dress g) Iron: material; irons: chains Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Nouns. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Coffee keep me awake at night. (Incorrect) Coffee keeps me awake at night. (Correct) #2: The next Lake I want to visit is lake Michigan. (Incorrect) The next lake I want to visit is Lake Michigan. (Correct) #3: There are a pack of hyenas outside. (Incorrect) There is a pack of hyenas outside. (Correct) #4: Economics are the study of demand and supply in market structure. (Incorrect) Economics is the study of demand and supply in market structure. (Correct) #5: The binoculars was very expensive. (Incorrect) The binoculars were very expensive. (Correct) #6: Sheeps are grazing in the field. (Incorrect) Sheep are grazing in the field. (Correct) #7: Alms is given as an act of charity. (Incorrect) Alms are given as an act of charity. (Correct) #8: Measles are very common among children. (Incorrect) Measles is very common among children. (Correct) #9: The poultry is mine. (Incorrect) The poultry are mine. (Correct) #10: She lives with her two daughter-in-laws. (Incorrect) She lives with her two daughters-in-law. (Correct) #11: The Japanese is a hard-working people. (Incorrect) The Japanese are a hard-working people. (Correct) #12: There are many different people in Europe. (Incorrect) There are many different peoples in Europe. (Correct) #13: Dot your i-s and cross your ts. (Incorrect) Dot your i's and cross your t's. (Correct) #14: I brought somebody’s else book from the library by mistake. (Incorrect) I brought somebody else’s book from the library by mistake. (Correct) #15: He studies in the Municipality Boys’s school. (Incorrect) He studies in the Municipality Boys’ school. (Correct) #16: He has committed many mischiefs. (Incorrect) He has committed much mischief. (Correct) #17: The summons have been served on him. (Incorrect) The summons has been served on him. (Correct) #18: A five-kilometer races are arranged during annual sports events. (Incorrect) A five-kilometer race is arranged during annual sports events. (Correct) #19: I cannot find my wallet but your’s is on the table. (Incorrect) I cannot find my wallet but yours is on the table. (Correct) #20: Dev and Ruhi’s family are coming for the party. (Incorrect) Dev and Ruhi’s family is coming for the party. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Nouns - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/18-nouns/1-tips-on-nouns/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  18. Grammar Rules with 12 Tips on using Modal Verb Modal Verb: Modals are type of Auxiliary verbs that expresses the mood or attitude of the speaker and they give additional information about the function of the main verb. The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, ought to, dare and need to. RULES: a) Are followed directly by bare infinitive or the infinitive of another verb (without 'to’). Don’t take non-finite forms (to can, must ing) c) Form negative directly (can't, mustn't). d) Form inversion/interrogation without ‘DO’ (can I? must I?). e) Don’t take -s form for third-person singular (cans, musts). f) No co-occurrence (She may will come tomorrow.) Tips on using Modal Verbs: Tip#1: Can Used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility. a) Ability: I can speak English Request: Can you please lend me a pen? c) Permission/ Offer: Can I leave now? (Seeking Permission) / Can I help you? (Offer) d) Order/Prohibition: You can leave now. (Order or giving Permission) / You can’t enter the room now. (Prohibition) e) Possibility: Smoking can cause cancer. Tip#2: Could Used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. a) Possibility (followed by ‘be’): This news could be true. Request: Could you tell me the way to airport please? c) Permission: Could I use your phone? d) Past Ability (Could + have – indicates the action did not take place in the past): You could have have drowned in the sea. (But you didn’t drown) e) Conditional of ‘Can’: If I had more time, I could travel around the world. Tip#3: Will Used to make predictions and with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. a) Future Tense Auxiliary (followed by ‘be’): Tomorrow I will be in Chennai. Invitation/Offers: Will you like to join us for coffee? c) Promise: I will call you every day. d) Prediction: He thinks it will rain tomorrow. e) Belief (Will + have to): We will have to take the train as we are running 15 minutes late. f) Conditionals (will with ‘If’ and won’t with ‘Unless’): I’ll give her a call if I can find her number. Tip#4: Would Used to express habit, wish and create the past form of the modal verb "will” and conditional tense. a) Polite Request: Would you please help me open the door? Wish: I would like eat rice for dinner. c) Past of ‘Will’: I knew that she would be very successful in her career. d) Habit: They would always have picnics at the beach. e) Conditionals: (would have in past conditionals to talk about something that did not happen): He would have been very angry if he had seen you. Tip#5: Shall Used to indicate future action or suggestion and is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we“. a) Future Action: I shall be there by 8:00. Suggestion: Shall we move into the living room? c) Promising/Volunteering: I shall make the travel arrangements. d) Predestination: Man shall explore the distant regions of the universe. Tip#6: Should Used to make recommendations, give advice, and express obligation as well as expectation. a) Duty/Obligation: We should return the books before the library closes. Recommendation: People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. c) Expectation: Sunil should be in New Delhi by now. d) Past Obligation (Should + have): You should have stood by your brother during his difficult times. e) Deduction: Jerome has practiced all week. He should be ready for his match today. Tip#7: May Used to express possibility, give or seek permission in present or future. a) Possibility: The chairman may come to visit our office tomorrow. Wish/Prayer: May God bless you! c) Purpose: She works hard so that she may pass. d) Seek Permission: May I make a phone call? e) Give Permission: You may make a phone call. Tip#8: Might Used to express possibility and is also often used in conditional sentences. a) Possibility: I might see you tomorrow. Remote or Slight Possibility: We might win a lottery but I doubt it. c) Conditional of ‘May’: If I entered the contest, I might actually win. d) Suggestion: You might try the cheesecake. Tip#9: Must Used to express certainty, necessity, obligation, prohibition or strong recommendation. a) Necessity/ Obligation: You must follow the instructions. Strong Possibility: You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry. c) Determination: I must help him. d) Deduction: He owns a big house. He must be rich. e) Certainty: This must be the right address! Tip#10: Ought To Used to express correct action and strong sense of moral duty, advice, recommendations, assumption or expectation a) Moral Duty/ Obligation: You ought to to serve your motherland. Advice/Recommendation: You ought to stop smoking. c) Probability: This gold price ought to rise in value. d) Expectation/Deserve: Rahul ought to get the promotion. Tip#11: Need & Need Not Used commonly in questions and negatives to express necessity. a) Negative: He need not wait any longer. Questions (usually used in questions without ‘not’): Need he wait any longer? No, he need not. (‘Need not’ is used when the answer is negative) Yes, he need must. (‘Must’ is used when the answer is affirmative) c) With Minimizing Adverbs (hardly, only, barely): He need only say what he wants and it will be granted. d) Need not + have: (when an action was not necessary but was performed in past): He need not have lost his temper. Tip#12: Dare & Dare Not Used commonly in questions and negatives to express shock or outrage a) Negative: He dare not/daren’t do such a thing. Questions (usually used in questions without ‘not’): How dare you contradict me? c) Perhaps/Possibility: I dare say he will agree to our proposal. Note: (When Dare is used as auxiliary verb, ‘-s’ is not taken in the third person singular.) He dares not abuse his rivals. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Present Tense. #1: She cans help you this afternoon. (Incorrect) She can help you this afternoon. (Correct) #2: I can be able to come with you for the trip next week. (Incorrect) I will (I’ll) be able to come with you for the trip next week. (Correct) #3: Yesterday, I can lift the couch by myself. (Incorrect) Yesterday, I was able to lift the couch by myself. (Correct) #4: I think he could not come with us to the party. (Incorrect) I think he might not come with us to the party. (Correct) #5: You won’t get in if you not have a ticket. (Incorrect) You won’t get in unless you have a ticket. (Correct) #6: If I had the money I will buy a new car. (Incorrect) If I had the money I'd (would) buy a new car. (Correct) #7: Peter will not eat broccoli when he was a kid. (Incorrect) Peter wouldn’t eat broccoli when he was a kid. (Correct) #8: He needs not wait here. We will call him once the doctor is ready. (Incorrect) He need not wait here. We will call him once the doctor is ready. (Correct) #9: Could we begin the meeting now? (Incorrect) Shall we begin the meeting now? (Correct) #10: Might you live long! (Incorrect) May you live long! (Correct) #11: Julie said she may come for dinner. (Incorrect) Julie said she might come for dinner. (Correct) #12: Did I not tell you that I shall qualify? (Incorrect) Did I not tell you that I would qualify? (Correct) #13: You might not trespass. (Incorrect) You must not trespass. (Correct) #14: She ought to not take such risks while skiing. (Incorrect) She ought not take such risks while skiing. (Correct) #15: Need not I come again? (Incorrect) Need I come again? (Correct) #16: He dares not accept the challenge. (Incorrect) He dare not accept the challenge. (Correct) #17: Any child will grow up to become Prime Minister of the country. (Incorrect) Any child can grow up to become Prime Minister of the country. (Correct) #18: Do I help you? (Incorrect) Shall I help you? (Correct) #19: I willing make dinner tonight. (Incorrect) I will make dinner tonight/ I will be making dinner tonight. (Correct) #20: I shall inviting them. (Incorrect) I shall invite them. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Modal Verbs - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/14-modals/1-tips-on-modals/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  19. Grammar Rules with 16 Tips on using Gerunds & Infinitives What are Gerunds & Infinitives? Gerunds and Infinitives are types of Non-Finite verbs. Non-Finite Verb: Verbs that have no separate subject and do not show tense (i.e.) these verbs are not conjugated in relation to a subject. Example: I like to give him money today. (Here ‘like’ has ‘I’ as its subject so it is a Finite verb but ‘to give’ has no subject and limitation of number so it is a Non-Finite verb) Types and Functions of Non-Finite Verb: a) Infinitives. She comes here to swim. (functions as a noun, adjective or adverb) Gerunds. She does not like swimming. (functions as a noun) c) Participle. She participates in swimming events. (functions as an adjective) Tips on using Gerund: Tip #1: Subject-Object Subject: Gerunds can appear at the beginning of a sentence when used as a subject. Smoking is injurious to health. Object: Gerunds can act as an object following the verb. Dinesh quit smoking a year ago. Tip #2: Gerund vs. Infinitive, Participle Gerund vs Infinitive: Some verbs can be followed by both a gerund and an infinitive (being used as a noun) without causing a change in meaning. a) Infinitive: I like to swim. (General/ habit) Gerund: I like swimming. (General/ habit) c) Infinitive: I like to swim today. (Note the meaning has changed from previous two examples) Gerund vs. Participle: Gerunds always functions as nouns, whereas participles function as adjectives. a) Participle: Barking dogs seldom bite. (‘Barking’ functioning as adjective to ‘dog’) Gerund: We can hear the barking. (‘Barking’, functioning as a noun, is the sound heard by us) Tip #3: To + Gerund To + Gerund: used after certain verbs and phrases like ‘be used to, with a view to, accustomed to, owing to, given to, look forward to, prone to, in addition to,’ etc. a) He is used to swimming early in the morning. She is accustomed to speaking in English in school. c) Naveen comes here with a view to studying. Tip #4: Preposition + Gerund Preposition + Gerund: is used after certain verbs and phrases that are followed by appropriate prepositions (in, on, from, of) instead of ‘to’. a) She restrains from making any statement. He is confident of winning. c) He rebuked you for coming late. (Showing cause for the action) d) The book is for reading. (Showing purpose for which the subject is used) Tip #5: Direct Gerund Direct Gerund: certain verbs are followed directly by gerunds (e.g.) avoid, love, like, dislike, prefer, consider, finish, miss, imagine, regret etc. a) She enjoys (to ride) riding on the hills. Paul avoids using chemicals on the vegetables he grows. Give up, Put off, and Set about: Phrasal verbs like these ones are followed by Direct Gerund. a) The coach called off practicing for the day. Tom looked into finding a new job. Tip #6: Possessive Noun/ Pronoun + Gerund Possessive Noun/ pronoun + gerund: The noun or pronoun before a gerund should be in possessive case. a) Shweta insisted on Rahul’s coming with her. I did not like his singing. Tips on using Infinitive: Tip #1: Subject-Object, How + Infinitive Subject: Infinitive can appear at the beginning of a sentence when used as a subject. To visit the Taj Mahal is my life-long dream. Object: Infinitive can act as an object following the verb. Nilesh always forgets to eat. How to + Infinitive: When used with verbs of manner/method like teach, show, explain, learn, know, discover, and wonder etc., the infinitive is used as ‘how to’. He knows how to color with crayons. Tip #2: Noun, Adverb, Adjective As a Noun: To dance was her passion. (The infinitive ‘to dance’ is the subject of the verb ‘was’.) As an Adjective: Give him an ornament to polish. (The infinitive ‘to polish’ functions as an adjective and modifies ornament.) As an Adverb: He will complete the mission to set an example. (The infinitive ‘to set’ modifies the verb will complete. This means it is functioning as an adverb.) Tip #3: Too, Very, Enough Too: when used with ‘too’, the infinitive denotes negative meaning. She is too tired to help me. (Meaning she can’t help me) Very: when used with ‘very’, the infinitive expresses affirmative meaning. We are very happy to see you. Enough: when used with ‘enough’, the infinitive expresses affirmative meaning I've had enough food to eat. Tip #4: Need, Dare Need, Dare: When these two words are used as auxiliaries in negative and interrogative sentences, direct infinitive, that’s infinitive without ‘to’, is used after them. a) He need not work hard. He needs to work hard. c) Need he work there now? d) Do you need to work there now? Tip #5: Let, Bid, Know, Hear, Help, Watch Bid, Know, Make, Help, feel, Hear, Watch and See: when these words are used in Active Voice, they are followed by Direct Infinitive. a) I made the student write an essay. (Active voice-direct infinitive, so no ‘to’ used before ‘write’) The student was made to write an essay. (Passive voice- infinitive, ‘to’ is used before ‘write’) Let: is followed by Direct Infinitive both in active and passive voice. a) Her parents let her go to cinema. (Passive) Let's go out for a walk tonight. (Active) Tip #6: Had better, As, Why Not, But, Except Had better, Had rather, Would better, Would rather, As soon, Sooner than: these phrases are followed by Direct Infinitive. We had better to take some warm clothing. Why, Why not: is followed by the Direct Infinitive when making suggestions. a) Why not buy a new bed? Why to wait until tomorrow? But, Than, Except, And, As, For: Direct Infinitive is used with these words. He did nothing but to sleep. Tip #7: Perfect Infinitive Perfect Infinitive is used if the action expressed by the Infinitive precedes the action of the Finite verb OR in Third conditional sentences. a) He admitted to have uttered those words. (‘Uttered’ happened before he ‘admitted’) She seems to have quit her job. c) She was sorry to have missed the show. d) He reported to have lost the file. e) Before I turn 40, I want to have written a book. (Third conditional) Tip #8: Continuous Infinitive Appear, Seem, Believe, Consider, Think, Report, Happen, Arrange, Pretend, Hope, Say: Continuous Infinitive is used with these verbs when needed. a) I happened to be waiting for the bus when the accident happened. You'd better be working on your report when I get there. (‘To’ removed as followed by ‘would rather’) c) You must be joking! (‘To’ removed as followed by modal verb ‘must) Tip #9: Should, Could, May, Might, Must Will, Would, Can, Could, Must, May, Might: all these modal verbs are followed by direct infinitive, without ‘to’. a) We should be hurrying. (With continuous infinitive form) Someone must have broken the window and climbed in. (with perfect infinitive form) c) They might have been talking before you came in. (with perfect continuous infinitive form) d) Alice could be given a prize for her artwork. (With passive infinitive form) Tip #10: With, By, As, In With, By, As, In: all these and other prepositions are used with the infinitive when the infinitive qualifies the noun. a) She gave me a pen to write with. They offered me a bed to sleep in. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Adjectives. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: He is addicted to watch TV continuously. (Incorrect) He is addicted to watching TV continuously (Correct). #2: Please give me a pen to write. (Incorrect) Please give me a pen to write with. (Correct) #3: She is reported to work in Chandigarh nowadays. (Incorrect) She is reported to be working in Chandigarh nowadays. (Correct) #4: You should avoid to drive at night. (Incorrect) You should avoid driving at night. (Correct) #5: I have no house to live. (Incorrect) I have no house to live in. (Correct) #6: He is enough ill to go out. (Incorrect) He is too ill to go out. (Correct) #7: She is prone to injure herself. (Incorrect) She is prone to injuring herself. (Correct) #8: I still remember to meet you last year in Mumbai. (Incorrect) I still remember having met you last year in Mumbai. (Correct) #9: It is no use to wait for her. (Incorrect) It is no use waiting for her. (Correct) #10: She confessed to cheat in the exam. (Incorrect) She confessed to have cheated in the exam. (Correct) #11: Why not to rest now? (Incorrect) Why not rest now? (Correct) #12: Shiela is bent to go to Hyderabad next week. (Incorrect) Shiela is bent on going to Hyderabad next week. (Correct) #13: My mother taught me how cook food. (Incorrect) My mother taught me how to cook food. (Correct) #14: The machine is for to measure weight. (Incorrect) The machine is for measuring weight. (Correct) #15: I will have him to finish the food completely. (Incorrect) I will have him finish the food completely. (Correct) #16: He dare not to go to the park at night. (Incorrect) He dare not go to the park at night. (Correct) #17: The train is expected leaving the station in five minutes. (Incorrect) The train is expected to leave the station in five minutes. (Correct) #18: The trainer let him to take a break. (Incorrect) The trainer let him take a break. (Correct) #19: He has given up to play sitar. (Incorrect) He has given up playing sitar. (Correct) #20: She might to come tomorrow. (Incorrect) She might come tomorrow. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Gerunds & Infinitives - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/21-gerunds-&-infinitives/1-tips-on-gerunds-&-infinitives/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  20. Grammar Rules with 8 Tips on using Future Tense Classifying Tenses: Tense is a form of Verb which indicates the time and state of and action or event. Classifying tenses based on the Time of Action: a) He writes letters. (Present Tense: Now- Present time of an action) He wrote letters. (Past Tense: Before Now- Past time of an action) c) He will write letters. (Future Tense: After Now- Future time of an action) Classifying Tenses based on the state of Action: 1. Simple: a) Present: sings Past: sang c) Future: will sing 2. Continuous (progressive action): a) Present: is singing Past: was singing c) Future: will be singing 3. Perfect (completed action): a) Present: has sung Past: had sung c) Future: will have sung 4. Perfect Continuous (progressive action that is ongoing): a) Present: has been singing Past: had been singing c) Future: will have been singing Simple Future: Used to refer to an action that will take place in a time later than now, and expresses facts or certainty. 1. Predict a future event: It will rain tomorrow. 2. Express willingness or Spontaneous decision: I'll pay for the tickets by credit card. 3. Give orders: You will do exactly as I say. 4. Future as Fact: I shall be twenty next Saturday. 5. Negative version- use won’t (will not): The baby won't eat his soup. 6. Interrogative version-use Will/Shall: Will the dance troupe perform in Mumbai next year? Future Continuous: Used to talk about an unfinished action or event that will be in progress in the future 1. Prediction or Guess: I suppose it will be raining when we start. 2. Projection or already planned events: This time next week, I will be skiing at Gulmarg. 3. Actions expected to happen in the normal course of things: When he is in Jaipur, he will be staying with his friends. 4. Definite future arrangements: He will be meeting us at the conference next week. 5. Interrogative version-asking for information: Will she be going to the college today? Future Perfect: Used to emphasize the relative timing of an action which will start in the future after another action has completed or an event has occurred. 1. Actions completed: (will/shall have + past participle): I shall have written my exercise by then. 2. One event happened before/after another (ever, just, already, recently, before, after): a) He will have rung up his wife before he arrives home. By the time you read this I will have left. 3. Time expression (since, for, how long, whole, throughout, all, all along): He will have known her for two years next month. 4. Negative and Interrogative version: a) They won’t have arrived by 5:00 p.m. Will you have eaten when I pick you up? Future Perfect Continuous: Used for actions which will be in progress over a period of time that will end sometime between now and the future. 1. Actions that will continue: (to be" [will have been] + the present participle of the main verb): a) Next year I will have been working here for four years. (will continue working) I’ll have been teaching for twenty years next July. (will continue teaching) 2. Actions that mark completion: When I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twenty years. 3. Negative version: I will not have been playing poker for 30 years by then. 4. Interrogatives version: When I come at 6:00, will you have been practicing long? Tips on using Future Tense: Tip #1: Shall Shall: Used with I and We to make an offer or suggestion, or to ask for advice in Simple Future. With ‘I’ in the interrogative form -to make an offer or ask for advice or instructions: a) Shall I open the window? What shall I tell the boss about this money? With ‘We’ in the interrogative form - to make a suggestion: Shall we go to the cinema tonight? With the other persons (you, he, she, and they) shall is only used in literary or poetic situations: "With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, she shall have music wherever she goes." Tip #2: Going to 1. Going To: Used to express an action that is already decided upon and preparations have been made. 2. Formation: be going to + base of the verb 3. Decision, plan, intention taken at time of talking: Yes. Tomorrow I am going to resign my job. 4. Something in the present which tells us about the future: It is going to rain; look at those clouds. 5. Express an action which is on the point of happening: Let's get into the train. It's going to leave. Tip #3: Soon, Shortly Soon, shortly, in a few moments, Tomorrow, Next day/ month/week/year: Used to indicate future action. a) They will come shortly. Kumar will go to Delhi next month. Presently: occurs at the end of the clause and normally refers to a future situation in context of ‘soon’. a) I will be teaching Class 6B presently. (This is unequivocally describing a future situation) I am presently teaching Class 6B. (This is taking place now) Tip #4: Still Still: Used to refer to events that are already happening now and that we expect to continue some time into the future. Used in Future Continuous form. 1. In an hour I'll still be finishing my English homework. 2. Won't stock prices still be falling in the morning? 3. Unfortunately, sea levels will still be rising in 20 years. Tip #5: If, Unless, When If, unless, when, while, before, after, until, by the time and as soon as: these clauses indicate future action. However, they are conjugated with Simple Present Tense, NOT Simple Future. a) Let's wait till he finishes his work. You must wait here until your father comes. If: used in present tense form to talk about the future but not normally used with ‘will’ a) I won't go out if it rains. (Not: will rain) I will be very happy if you come to my party. Tip #6: Present Tense Simple Present and Present Continuous: used in reference to future action for some cases. Simple Present Tense: Used for official programs and timetables a) The school opens on 14th June. When does the next train leave for Chennai? Present Continuous Tense: used talk about something that we have planned to do in the future. a) We are eating out tonight. The Chairman is arriving this evening. Tip #7: Be About to, Be to Be about to: Be about to + base form of verb is used to express the immediate future in Simple Future tense. a) Let's get into the train. It's about to leave. Don't go out now. We are about to have lunch. Be to: Be to + base form of verb is used to talk about official plans and arrangements. a) The Prime Minister is to visit America next month. “Prime Minister to visit America.”(Be is usually left out in news reports, headlines) Tip #8: May, Might, Could, Should May, Might, Could: these modals are used when we are not sure about the future. a) I might stay at home tonight. We could see Anita at the meeting tomorrow. Should: used if we think something is likely to happen. a) We should be home in time for tea. The game should be over by eight o’clock. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Present Tense. #1: I’ll come home when I will finish work. (Incorrect) I’ll come home when I finish work. (Correct) #2: Unless you do not labour hard, you will not pass. (Incorrect) Unless you labour hard, you will not pass. (Correct) #3: If it will rain, I shall not go to the meeting. (Incorrect) If it rains, I shall not go to the meeting. (Correct) #4: I’ll be going to study for my exams tonight. (Incorrect) I'm going to study for my exams tonight. (Correct) #5: Don't drop by at 7:20 PM. I may watch TV. (Incorrect) Don't drop by at 7:20 PM. I might be watching TV. (Correct) #6: You must wait here until I will return. (Incorrect) You must wait here until I return. (Correct) #7: Will I do the dishes for you? (Incorrect) Shall I do the dishes for you? / Can I do the dishes for you? (Correct) #8: Tickets could be shown at the gate before entering the theatre. (Incorrect) Tickets should be shown at the gate before entering the theatre. (Correct) #9: Frank said that he may be late. (Incorrect) Frank said that he might be late. / "I may be late," said Frank. (Correct) #10: Paul isn't free on Thursday. He will work in his aunt's shop. (Incorrect) Paul isn't free on Thursday. He's working in his aunt's shop. (Correct) #11: I like to meet the President someday. (Incorrect) I would like to meet the President someday. (Correct) #12: Fasten your seatbelts. The plane will be about to take off. (Incorrect) Fasten your seatbelts. The plane is about to take off. (Correct) #13: That shall be my mother calling to see if I have left yet. (Incorrect) That will be my mother calling to see if I have left yet. (Correct) #14: They will be talking for two hours by then. (Incorrect) They will have been talking for two hours by then. (Correct) #15: Will I wear this dress tomorrow night? (Incorrect) Shall I wear this dress tomorrow night? (Correct) #16: Look at that speeding car! It will crash into the yellow one. (Incorrect) Look at that car! It is going to crash into the yellow one. (Correct) #17: I think Sue arrives in Paris at 6 pm. (Incorrect) I think Sue will arrive in Paris at 6 pm. (Correct) #18: In the coming two weeks, temperatures will still rise. (Incorrect) In the coming two weeks, temperatures will still be rising. (Correct) #19: I will have been taking a bath at 7 AM tomorrow. (Incorrect) I will be taking a bath at 7 AM tomorrow. (Correct) #20: Tomorrow, I am baking a birthday cake. (Incorrect) Tomorrow, I will be baking a birthday cake. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Future Tense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/12-future-tense/1-tips-on-future-tense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  21. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Direct & Indirect Speech What is Direct & Indirect Speech? Direct Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in his own actual words without any change. Indirect Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in our own words. Example on Process of Conversion from Direct to Indirect Speech a) Direct: Radha said, “I am very busy now.” Indirect: Radha said that she was very busy then. 1. All inverted commas or quotation marks are omitted and the sentence ends with a full stop. 2. Conjunction ‘that’ is added before the indirect statement. 3. The pronoun ‘I’ is changed to ‘she’. (The Pronoun is changed in Person) 4. The verb ‘am’ is changed to ‘was’. (Present Tense is changed to Past) 5. The adverb ‘now’ is changed to ‘then’. Tips on Direct and Indirect Speech: Tip 1: Conversion Rules as per the Reporting Verb When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all Present tenses of the direct are changed into the corresponding Past Tenses. a) Direct: He said, “I am unwell.” Indirect: He said (that) he was unwell. If the reporting verb is in the Present or Future Tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. a) Direct: He says/will say, “I am unwell.” Indirect: He says/will say he is unwell. The Tense in Indirect Speech is NOT CHANGED if the words within the quotation marks talk of a universal truth or habitual action. a) Direct: They said, “We cannot live without water.” Indirect: They said that we cannot live without water. Tip 2: Conversion Rules of Present Tense in Direct Speech Simple Present Changes to Simple Past a) Direct: "I am happy", she said. Indirect: She said that she was happy. Present Continuous Changes to Past Continuous a) Direct: "I am reading a book", he explained. Indirect: He explained that he was reading a book. Present Perfect Changes to Past Perfect a) Direct: She said, "He has finished his food“. Indirect: She said that he had finished his food. Present Perfect Continuous Changes to Past Perfect Continuous a) Direct: "I have been to Gujarat", he told me. Indirect: He told me that he had been to Gujarat. Tip 3: Conversion Rules of Past & Future Tense Simple Past Changes to Past Perfect a) Direct: He said, “Ira arrived on Monday." Indirect: He said that Ira had arrived on Monday. Past Continuous Changes to Past Perfect Continuous a) Direct: "We were living in Goa", they told me. Indirect: They told me that they had been living in Goa. Future Changes to Present Conditional a) Direct: He said, "I will be in Kolkata tomorrow." Indirect: He said that he would be in Kolkata the next day. Future Continuous Changes to Conditional Continuous a) Direct: She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday.” Indirect: She said that she would be using the car next Friday. Tip 4: Changes in Modals CAN changes into COULD a) Direct: He said, "I can swim." Indirect: He said that he could swim. MAY changes into MIGHT a) Direct: He said, "I may buy a house.” Indirect: He said that he might buy a house. MUST changes into HAD TO/WOULD HAVE TO a) Direct: He said, "I must work hard.” Indirect: He said that he had to work hard. Modals that DO NOT Change: Would, Could, Might, Should, Ought to. a) Direct: He said, "I should face the challenge.” Indirect: He said that he should face the challenge. Tip 5: Conversion of Interrogative Reporting Verb like ‘said/ said to’ changes to asked, enquired or demanded a) Direct: He said to me, “What are you doing?” Indirect: He asked me what I was doing. If sentence begins with auxiliary verb, the joining clause should be if or whether. a) Direct: He said, “Will you come for the meeting?” Indirect: He asked them whether they would come for the meeting. If sentence begins with ‘wh’ questions then no conjunction is used as the "question-word" itself act as joining clause. a) Direct: “Where do you live?” asked the girl. Indirect: The girl enquired where I lived. Tip 6: Command, Request, Exclamation, Wish Commands and Requests Indirect Speech is introduced by some verbs like ordered, requested, advised and suggested. Forbid(s)/ forbade is used for the negative sentences. The imperative mood is changed into the Infinitive. a) Direct: Rafique said to Ahmed, “Go away.” Indirect: Rafique ordered Ahmed to go away. c) Direct: He said to her, “Please wait.” d) Indirect: He requested her to wait. Exclamations and Wishes Indirect Speech is introduced by some words like grief, sorrow, happiness, applaud. Exclamatory sentence changes into assertive sentence and Interjections are removed. a) Direct: He said, “Alas! I am undone.” Indirect: He exclaimed sadly that he was broke. Tip 7: Change of Pronouns The first person of the reported speech changes according to the subject of reporting speech. a) Direct: She said, “I am in ninth class.” Indirect: She says that she was in ninth class. The second person of reported speech changes according to the object of reporting speech. a) Direct: He says to them, "You have completed your job.” Indirect: He tells them that they have completed their job. The third person of the reported speech doesn't change. a) Direct: He says, "She is in tenth class.” Indirect: He says that she is in tenth class. Tip 8: Change of Place and Time Words expressing nearness in time or place in Direct Speech are generally changed into words expressing distance in Indirect Speech. Now -- then Here -- there Ago -- before Thus -- so Today -- that day Tomorrow -- the next day This -- that Yesterday -- the day before These -- those Hither-- thither Come -- go Hence -- thence Next week/month -- following week/month a) Direct: She said, “My father came yesterday.” Indirect: She said that her father had come the day before. c) Direct: She says/will say, “My father came yesterday.” Indirect: She says/will say that her father had come yesterday. (Here the reporting verb ‘says’ is in the present tense OR ‘will say’ is in future tense; hence the time expression ‘yesterday’ won’t change.) Tip 9: Punctuation The words that are actually spoken should be enclosed in quotes and begin with a capital letter Example: He said, “You are right.” Comma, full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark must be present at the end of reported sentences and are placed inside the closing inverted comma or commas. Example: He asked, “Can I come with you?” If direct speech comes after the information about who is speaking, comma is used to introduce the piece of speech, placed before the first inverted comma. Example: She shouted, “Stop talking!” Example: “Thinking back,” she said, “he didn't expect to win.” (Comma is used to separate the two reported speech and no capital letter to begin the second sentence). Tip 10: Conversion of Indirect to Direct Speech 1. Use the reporting verb, "say" or "said to" in its correct tense. 2. Remove the conjunctions "that, to, if or whether etc" wherever necessary. 3. Insert quotation marks, question mark, exclamation and full stop, as per the mood of the sentence. 4. Put a comma before the statement. 5. Write the first word of the statement with capital letter. 6. Change the past tense into present tense wherever the reporting verb is in the past tense. 7. Convert the past perfect either into past tense or present perfect as found necessary. Example a) Indirect: He asked whether he is coming. Direct: He said to him, “Are you coming?” Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Direct and Indirect Speech. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Direct: The boy said, “I’m happy with my results.” Indirect: The boy said that he is happy with his results. (Incorrect) Indirect: The boy said that he was happy with his results. (Correct) #2: Direct: She said, “I have baked a cake.” Indirect: She said (that) she baked a cake. (Incorrect) Indirect: She said (that) she had baked a cake. (Correct) #3: Direct: He said, “All people have equal rights.” Indirect: He said that all people had equal rights. (Incorrect) Indirect: He said that all people have equal rights. (Correct) #4: Direct: Roshni said, “I may meet him here”. Indirect: Roshni said that she may meet him here. (Incorrect) Indirect: Roshni said that she might meet him there. (Correct) #5: Direct: She says, “I will go to school tomorrow.” Indirect: She says that she would go to school the day after. (Incorrect) Indirect: She says that she will go to school tomorrow. (Correct) #6: Direct: He said, “She is coming this week to discuss this.” Indirect: He said that she was coming this week to discuss this. (Incorrect) Indirect: He said that she was coming that week to discuss it. (Correct) #7: Direct: He said to them, “Will you come for dinner?” Indirect: He said to them will they come for dinner? (Incorrect) Indirect: He asked them whether they would come for dinner.(Correct) #8: Direct: The teacher said, “Be quiet and listen to my words.” Indirect: The teacher said them to be quiet and listen to my words. (Incorrect) Indirect: The teacher urged /ordered them to be quiet and listen to his words. (Correct) #9: Direct: The old man said, “Ah! I am ruined.” Indirect: The old man said that Ah he was ruined! (Incorrect) Indirect: The old man exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined. #10: Indirect: The policeman enquired where we were going. Direct: The policeman enquired where are you going. (Incorrect) Direct: The policeman said, “Where are you going?” (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Direct & Indirect Speech - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/27-direct-&-indirect-speech/1-tips-on-direct-&-indirect-speech/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  22. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips for using Conjunctions What is a Conjunction? A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Functions of Conjunction: 1. Joins together sentences, and sometimes words. 2. Makes sentences more compact. Example: ‘Sudhir is a good bowler and Sanjay is a good bowler’. Using conjunction we can say in short ‘Sudhir and Sanjay are good bowlers’. NOTE: When conjunctions simply joins two words in a sentence, then the sentence can’t be dissolved into two separate, independent sentences. Example: Rumi and Ruhi are sisters. Types of Conjunctions: 1. Correlative Conjunction: used in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence (Either-or, Neither-nor, both-and, though-yet, whether-or, Not only-But also). Either take it or leave it. 2. Compound Conjunction: formed when compound expressions are used as conjunctions (In order that, as well as, provided that, so that, as through, as soon as, as if etc.) Such an act would not be kind even if it were just. 3. Coordinating Conjunction: coordinates or joins two or more sentences, main clauses, words or other parts of speech which are of equal importance or rank (for, and, nor, but, yet). Birds fly and fish swim. 4. Subordinating Conjunctions: joins a clause to another one on which it depends for its full meaning or joins dependent clauses to independent clauses (after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, as, when, where, while). He ran away because he was afraid. Tips on using Conjunctions: Tip #1: Correlative Conjunctions Placement of Correlative Conjunctions: When Conjunctions are used as Correlatives, each of the correlated words should be placed immediately before the words to be connected. Example: a) He visited not only Mumbai, but also Pune. (Correct) He not only visited Mumbai, but also Pune. (Wrong) Tip #2: Coordinating Conjunctions Replacement of Coordinating Conjunctions: Any of the Coordinating Conjunctions, with the exception of ‘or, nor,’ may be omitted and its place taken by a comma, semicolon, or colon. Example: a) Rama went out to play but Hari stayed in to work. Rama went out to play; Hari stayed in to work. (Conjunction ‘but’ replaced by ‘;’ mark) Tip #3: Preposition and Conjunction Prepositions cannot be used to connect two clauses: It should be followed by a noun or noun equivalent which acts as its object. Certain words are used both as Prepositions and Conjunctions: a) Stay till Sunday. (‘till’ is a preposition here) We shall stay here till you return. (‘till’ is a conjunction here) c) The dog ran after the cat. (‘after’ is a preposition here) d) We came after they had left. (‘after’ is a subordinating conjunction here) Tip #4: Conjunction, Relative Adverb, Relative Pronoun Relative Adverb: is an adverb which introduces a relative clause. The relative adverbs are: where, when, whenever and wherever. a) I will never forget the day when I met Jane. (Here ‘when’ a is relative adverb) When the doorbell rang, my dog Rusty barked loudly. (Here ‘when’ acts as a subordinating conjunction is as the dog’s barking is dependent on the ringing of the bell) Relative Pronoun is a pronoun which introduces a relative clause. The relative pronouns are: who, whom, which and whose. a) The boy whose sister works with me is a good designer. (Relative pronoun) I hired Satish, whose interior design work is top-notch. (Subordinating conjunction) Tip #5: Since, Or ‘Since’ in the meaning of ‘from and after the time when’: it should be preceded by a verb in the present perfect tense, and followed by a verb in the simple past tense. Many things have changed since I left the city. ‘Since’ in the meaning of ‘because’: Since you will not work, you shall not eat. ‘Or’ in the meaning of introducing an alternative: He may study law or medicine, or engineering. ‘Or’ to mean ‘otherwise’: We must hasten or the train will leave. Tip #6: Yet ‘Yet’ as conjunction: used when we want to emphasize that contrast to achieve a stronger effect. She can speak Hindi very well, yet she can’t write Hindi at all. ‘Yet’ as adverb: is used to talk about something over a period of time, up till now, sometimes with negative meanings and in questions. a) Isn’t the dinner ready yet? Don’t eat the mangoes. They’re not ripe yet. Tip #7: If ‘If’ in the meaning of condition or supposition: If he is there, I shall see him. ‘If’ in the manner of an admission: If I am rude, I am at least honest. ‘If’ in the meaning of ‘whether’: I asked him if he would come to the party. ‘If’ in the meaning of ‘whenever’: If I face any problem, I will call you. Tip #8: That ‘That’ to express a reason or cause, and is equivalent to ‘because’: He was annoyed that he was interrupted. ‘That’ to express a consequence, result, or effect: I am so tired that I cannot walk. ‘That’ as a Relative Pronoun to define a person, animal or thing: He went to the school that my father went to. (here ‘that’ is not joining sentences but defining an object, i.e., the school ) Tip #9: Than, Lest, Except Than: as a Conjunction, follows adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree. Oceans are bigger than seas (are). Lest: as a Subordinating Conjunction to express fear or apprehension. He is hesitant to speak out lest he be fired. Except: used for introducing the only person, thing, or fact that is not included. a) I’d invite Paresh myself, except I don’t know where he lives. (conjunction) I haven’t invited anyone except Paresh. (here ‘except’ is a preposition followed by the noun ‘Paresh’) Tip #10: While, Only While: is used to mean ‘during the same time as’: a) While he was sleeping, a thief entered the house. The girls studied while the boys played. While: to mean ‘whereas’ While I have no money to spend, you have nothing to spend on. Only: as a Conjunction, means ‘except that’ or ‘but’. a) She sings well, only that she forgets the lyrics in the middle. I would go with you, only I can’t take leave from office. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Conjunctions. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Either I’m feeling happy or sad, I try to keep a positive attitude. (Incorrect) Whether I’m feeling happy or sad, I try to keep a positive attitude. (Correct) #2: Meera went to the market and Meera bought oranges. (Incorrect) Meera went to the market and bought oranges. (Correct) #3: Will you please wait here as soon as I come back? (Incorrect) Will you please wait here until I come back? (Correct) #4: I have spoken to Ritesh, and confirmed the time of meeting. (Incorrect) I have spoken to Ritesh and confirmed the time of meeting. (Correct) #5: He not only called Amit, but Rita also. (Incorrect) He called not only Amit, but also Rita. (Correct) #6: You won’t pass the test if you study. (Incorrect) You won’t pass the test unless you study. (Correct) #7: I am living in Shillong since I left school in 2012. (Incorrect) I have been living in Shillong since I left school in 2012. (Correct) #8: I will not go unless you also. (Incorrect) I will not go unless you also do. (Correct) #9: I like coffee yet my wife prefers tea. (Incorrect) I like coffee but my wife prefers tea. (Correct) #10: I am late because of the traffic was terrible. (Incorrect) I am late because of the traffic. / I am late because the traffic was terrible. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Conjunctions - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/16-conjunctions/1-tips-on-conjunctions/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  23. Grammar Rules with 6 Tips on using Conditional Tense Conditional Tenses: Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In all cases, these sentences are made up of an ‘if clause’ and a main clause. Classifying Conditional tenses based on the nature of the condition: a) If you study hard, you will get a medal. (Open Condition) If you studied hard, you would get a medal. (Improbable or imaginary condition) c) If you had studied hard, you would have got a medal. (Unfulfilled or unreal condition) Classifying Conditional Tenses: Open Condition: a) Usage: A possible condition and its probable result If clause verb tense: Simple present: If you study hard c) Main clause verb tense: Simple Future (will /shall /can/May + plain infinitive) you will get a medal. Improbable Condition: a) Usage: A hypothetical condition and its probable result If clause verb tense: Simple past: If you studied hard c) Main clause verb tense: Present/ Continuous Conditional (would/should/could/might + plain infinitive) you would get a medal. Unfulfilled Condition: a) Usage: An unreal past condition and its probable result in the past If clause verb tense: Past perfect: If you had studied hard c) Main clause verb tense: Perfect /Continuous Conditional (would/should/could/might + perfect infinitive) you would have got a medal. Conditionals: Open Condition Used to describe that something will happen if a certain condition is fulfilled or refers to a possible condition and its probable result. 1. Facts: If you hit the dog, it will bite you. 2. Give Warnings: If you don't leave, I'll call the police. 3. Modals in main clause to express certainty, permission, or a recommendation: If you drop that glass, it might break. 4. Interrogative version: What will you do if you miss the bus? 5. Reverse order: If it rains, you will get wet. You will get wet if it rain. Conditionals: Improbable Condition Used to describe that something which we don't expect to happen or refers to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. Although the If clause takes a past tense, the sentence actually talks about the Present. 1 Hypothetical Situation: If I had a degree, I could get a job easily. 2 Present Continuous Conditional (expresses an unfinished or continuing action or situation): You wouldn't be smiling if you knew the truth. 3 Modals in main clause to express certainty, permission, or a recommendation: He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket. 4 Interrogative version: If you were a millionaire, how would you spend your time? 5 Reverse order: If it rained, you would get wet. You would get wet if it rained. Conditionals: Unfulfilled Condition Used to describe that something did not happen because a certain condition was not fulfilled or refers to an impossible condition and its probable result in past. 1 Regret: If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. 2 Perfect Conditional Tense (would + have + past participle): I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday. 3 Modals in main clause to express certainty, permission, or a recommendation: You could have been on time if you had caught the bus. 4 Interrogative version: Would she have gone to concert if you had given her the tickets? 5 Reverse order: If it had rained, you would have gotten wet. You would have gotten wet if it had rained. Tips on using Conditional Tense: Tip #1: Zero Conditional Zero Conditional: Used to make statements about the real world, general truths, and scientific facts. Nature: Real and possible Time: Now and always Formation: If + simple present -- main clause + simple present Example: a) If you heat ice, it melts. When you heat ice, it melts. ("If" can be replaced with "when", because both express general truths) c) If Suresh comes, tell him to meet me at the office. (Using the imperative in the main clause to give instructions) Tip #2: Mixed Conditional Mixed Conditional: Used to express an unreal present situation and its probable but unreal past . Nature: unreal and improbable Time: Now and always + Past Formation: If + past perfect-- main clause + present conditional OR If + simple past-- main clause + perfect conditional Example: a) If you had warned me then, I would not be in prison now. (If + past perfect-- main clause + present conditional) If I wasn't afraid of dogs, I would have picked it up. (If + simple past-- main clause + perfect conditional) Tip #3: Will, Would, Had Will, Would: normally ‘will’ or ‘would’ is not used in if clauses. However to express willingness or requests, they can be used in if clauses. a) If it will rain today you will get wet. (Wrong) If you will come this way, the manager will see you now. (Correct) Would and had can be contracted to‘d: a) If I’d (would) known you were in hospital, I’d (had) have visited you. (Wrong) If I’d (had) known you were in hospital, I’d (would) have visited you. (Correct) Tip #4: Some, Any Somewhere, Anywhere: After if, we can either use "some (-one, -where)" or "any (-one, -where)”. Though both refer to undetermined quantities, there is a subtle difference. Any: extends without limit but usually used in negative sense. If I have any spare time next weekend, I will meet you. (There is hardly any time to spare) Some: a limiting word but expecting a positive outcome If I have some spare time next weekend, I will meet you. (Chances are high that there will be time) Tip #5: Unless Unless: to express negative conditionals, ‘unless’ should be used. a) I'll be back tomorrow if there is not a plane strike. (Wrong) I'll be back tomorrow unless there is a plane strike. (Correct) Tip #6: Were Were: For unreal conditionals, ‘were’ is used instead of ‘was’. a) If I was taller, I would buy this dress. (Wrong) If I were taller, I would buy this dress. (Correct) Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Present Tense. #1: If you freeze water, it might become a solid. (Incorrect) If you freeze water, it becomes a solid. (Correct) #2: If you dropped that glass, it will break. (Incorrect) If you drop that glass, it will break. (Correct) #3: If I was a billionaire, I would give everyone a job. (Incorrect) If I were a billionaire, I would give everyone a job. (Correct) #4: I would have been happy if you were calling me on my birthday. (Incorrect) I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (Correct) #5: I'd (had) have bought you a present if I'd (would) known it was your birthday. (Incorrect) I'd (would) have bought you a present if I'd (had) known it was your birthday. (Correct) #6: I would have been happy to help you if I am not in a financial crisis. (Incorrect) I would have been happy to help you if I wasn't in a financial crisis. (Correct) #7: We shall celebrate the party outdoors if it not rains next week. (Incorrect) We shall celebrate the party outdoors unless it rains next week. (Correct) #8: If you look inside the fridge, you might find any food. (Incorrect) If you look inside the fridge, you might find some food. (Correct) #9: If I was you, I would give up smoking. (Incorrect) If I were you, I would give up smoking. (Correct) #10: If you will not hurry, you will miss the bus. (Incorrect) If you don't hurry, you will miss the bus. (Correct) #11: I am working in Italy if I spoke Italian. (Incorrect) I would be working in Italy if I spoke Italian. (Correct) #12: If Mark did the washing up, his mother will have more time for him. (Incorrect) If Mark does the washing up, his mother will have more time for him. (Correct) #13: If Vivek gotten up earlier, he wouldn't have been late for school. (Incorrect) If Vivek had gotten up earlier, he wouldn't have been late for school. (Correct) #14: If you drop that glass, it may be broken. (Incorrect) If you drop that glass, it might break. (Correct) #15: Unless she is not careful, she will fall off the bike. (Incorrect) Unless she is careful, she will fall off the bike. (Correct) #16: I could have offered you my help in case I knew all about it. (Incorrect) I could have offered you my help in case I had known all about it. (Correct) #17: If I did work harder at school, I would have a better job now. (Incorrect) If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now. (Correct) #18: What will happen if I will push this button? (Incorrect) What will happen if I push this button? (Correct) #19: If I know where she lived, I would go and see her. (Incorrect) If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her. (Correct) #20: If you’d (would) given me your e-mail, I’d (had) have written to you. (Incorrect) If you’d (had) given me your e-mail, I’d (would) have written to you. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Conditional Tenses - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/13-conditional-tense/1-tips-on-conditional-tenses/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  24. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips for using Articles What is an Article? Article: used before Nouns or Noun phrases to limit or define them. Types Of Articles: 1. Definite Article: ‘The’ points out a particular person or thing, in the sense of ‘this’ or ‘that’. Example: Give me the book. (‘That’ specific book) 2. Indefinite Article: ‘A’ and ‘An’ refer to non-specific, singular person or thing, in the sense of ‘one’ or ‘any’. Example: Give me a book/ an orange. (Any book or orange) A: used when the next word starts with a consonant, or before words starting in ‘u’ and ‘eu’ when they sound like ‘you’. (A boy, a uniform) An: when the next word starts with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or with a mute ‘h’. (An apple, an hour) Usage of A, An: 1. To refer to something for the first time: Would you like a cup of coffee? 2. With names of jobs: Jyoti is a doctor. 3. With identities (nationalities and religions) in the singular: John is an Englishman. 4. When referring to a day of the week but not a specific day: I was born on a Thursday. 5. To refer to an example of something: The mouse had a tiny nose. 6. With singular nouns after the words 'what' and 'such’: What a lovely day! 7. Referring to people when there is vagueness: A Mr. Gupta is going to come. 8. When referring to a singular object or a single unit of measure: I’d like an orange and two lemons, please. 9. When a singular countable noun represents a class of things, persons or animals: A son should be obedient. Usage of The: 1. Something which has already been mentioned: The thief has not been caught yet. 2. When there is just one of something in a place: Where is the bathroom? 3. In sentences or clauses that define or identify a particular person or object: The man who wrote this book is famous. 4. Before the choices in comparative degree: He is the poorer of the two brothers. 5. Before proper nouns which are unique: We went to the Taj Mahal. 6. Before dates: He was born on the 10th of May. 7. Give the meaning of an abstract noun to a common noun: It brought out the beast in him. 8. As an adverb in a comparative sense: The sooner you come, the better. 9. Before superlatives and ordinal numbers: This is the highest building in Delhi. Cases where articles should not be used: 1. With the names of meals: A Dinner is my favorite meal. 2. Before uncountable nouns: He gave me the advice. 3. Before hobbies, professions or sports: A Gardening is her hobby. 4. Before titles when combined with names: The Prince Charles is a Queen Elizabeth's son. 5. With years: The 1978 was a wonderful year. 6. Before collective nouns in the general sense: A Life is a struggle. 7. Before noun complements: The board appointed him the captain. 8. Before proper nouns: A Gold is good for investment. 9. Before common nouns or abstract nouns: An Honesty is the best policy. Tips on using Articles: Tip #1: Names of countries Country Names: Generally, definite article is not used with country names. The India is a great country. Use ‘the’ with countries whose names include words like kingdoms, states, and republic: He lives in the United States of America. Use ‘the’ with countries which have plural nouns as their names: Manila is the capital of the Philippines Tip #2: Specific geographic locations Geographical features: Definite article is used before mountain ranges, groups of islands, rivers, seas, oceans and canals. The Himalayas are the largest mountain range in the world. No article is necessary before Singular names of countries or territories, cities, towns, states, streets, lakes, bays, mountains, continents, islands, languages, sports, academic subjects. The highest mountain in the world is the Mount Everest. (Everest is a single mountain and not a mountain range, so no definite article is used before it) Tip #3: Proper Nouns People’s Names: usually no article is used before people’s names or proper nouns. The Harishchandra is a legendary king. But ‘a or an’ is used to make a common noun from a proper noun to express some quality associated to it. He is a Harishchandra when it comes to keep his promises. (Here ‘Harishchandra’ represents a quality like ‘utmost honesty’) Tip #4: For a Walk, In a Hurry, A Million Noun acting as verbs: Indefinite articles are used before nouns but they can be used before verbs when the verbs are acting as nouns. Words denoting numbers: ‘A’ is also used before words denoting numbers like-a million, a dozen. Phrases: Indefinite articles are also used in certain phrases like -in a hurry, have a mind, make a noise. I have told you a dozen times not to go for a walk in a hurry. (Here, ‘walk’ is a verb acting as a noun, so ‘a’ is used before it, like we say –for a talk, for a swim etc.) Tip #5: Little, A Little, The Little Little: means not much (i.e., hardly any) and has a negative meaning. There is little hope of his recovery. (There really isn’t much hope) A little: means some though not much and has a positive meaning. Used with uncountable nouns. There is a little hope of his recovery. (There is some hope of recovery) The little: means not much, but all there is. The little knowledge of carpentry that he possessed stood him in good stead. Tip #6: Few, a Few, the Few Few: means hardly anyone and has a negative meaning. I have few enemies. (I really don’t have any enemies) A few: means small in number but not many either. I have a few enemies. (I have a small number of enemies) The few: means not many, but all there is. The few days I had spent in Darjeeling were very pleasant. Tip #7: Singular vs. plural forms for ordinals Ordinals: These are words that express position or rank in sequential order. E.g. first, second etc. If there is an article before each ordinal, use the singular noun. The second and the third chapter is easy. If there is one article only before both ordinals, use the plural noun. The second and third chapters are easy. Tip #8: French, a French, the French Language and Origin: Definitive and indefinite articles are used with certain words depending on their function. French is spoken in many countries. (Here ‘French’ implies a language, so no definite article is used before it) He is a French national. (‘French’ is a adjective) The French are a courteous people. (Here ‘French’ represent a community) The French Revolution changed the course of history. (‘The’ is used before revolutions, events, dynasties, empires etc.) Tip #9: Repetition of articles Repetition or non-repetition of articles in a single sentence changes the meaning: 1. She has a black and white saree. (She has only one saree which is partly black and partly white) 2. She has a black and a white saree. (She has two sarees, one black and one white) 3. The Secretary and Treasurer was present there. (One person who is both Secretary and Treasurer) 4. The Secretary and the Treasurer were present there. (Two separate persons, one Secretary and the other Treasurer. Tip #10: The Ritz Hotel, Brown’s Hotel Use and absence of ‘the’: 1. We are staying at the Ritz Hotel. (‘The’ is used before names of hotels, pubs, restaurants etc.) 2. We had breakfast at the Brown’s hotel. (do not use the definite article if the name of the hotel or restaurant is the name of the owner) Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in Articles. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: They don’t have a heir to inherit the family property. (Incorrect) They don’t have an heir to inherit the family property. (Correct) #2: I studied the Sanskrit in high school for four years. (Incorrect) I studied Sanskrit in high school for four years. (Correct) #3: Please give me a water to drink. (Incorrect) Please give me (some) water to drink. (Correct) #4: Are you driving my the car? (Incorrect) Are you driving my car? (Correct) #5: The hypertension is called the silent killer. (Incorrect) Hypertension is called the silent killer. (Correct) #6: I would like to visit an Eiffel Tower. (Incorrect) I would like to visit the Eiffel Tower. (Correct) #7: They are planning an European holiday for the vacations. (Incorrect) They are planning a European holiday for the vacations. (Correct) #8: Mary is training to be the engineer. (Incorrect) Mary is training to be an engineer. (Correct) #9: The creativity should be encouraged in children. (Incorrect) Creativity should be encouraged in children. (Correct) #10: I was always good at a math. (Incorrect) I was always good at math. (Correct) #11: He is the pupil at Bishop Cotton High school. (Incorrect) He is a pupil at Bishop Cotton High school. (Correct) #12: I read a Times of India every morning. (Incorrect) I read Times of India every morning. (Correct) #13: She is learning a guitar. (Incorrect) She is learning the guitar. (Correct) #14: This is a best book on elementary chemistry. (Incorrect) This is the best book on elementary chemistry. (Correct) #15: Twelve inches make the foot. (Incorrect) Twelve inches make a foot. (Correct) #16: I can't forget kindness with which he treated me. (Incorrect) I can't forget the kindness with which he treated me. (Correct) #17: The uncle is coming to our place next week. (Incorrect) Uncle is coming to our place next week. (Correct) #18: These traditions are in place since Vedic ages. (Incorrect) These traditions are in place since the Vedic ages. (Correct) #19: This man is Shylock when it comes to allotting budget. (Incorrect) This man is a Shylock when it comes to allotting budget. (Correct) #20: The first and the second phases of election is over. (Incorrect) The first and the second phase of election is over. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Solving English Grammar Test Questions on Articles - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/15-articles/1-tips-on-articles/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  25. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips for using Adverbs Identify the Adverbs: Alisha left home early for her driving test. She drove nervously to the test center. When the examiner asked her to set off, she drove slowly but steadily down the street. Shortly after she had started, another car came in front of her suddenly. Alisha could not see clearly but she swerved right sharply to avert collision. Her car was badly damaged after hitting the pavement. Fortunately, the examiner appreciated her presence of mind and she passed the test successfully. Solution: Alisha left home early for her driving test. She drove nervously to the test center. When the examiner asked her to set off, she drove slowly but steadily down the street. Shortly after she had started, another car came in front of her suddenly. Alisha could not see clearly but she swerved right sharply to avert collision. Her car was badly damaged after hitting the pavement. Fortunately, the examiner appreciated her presence of mind and she passed the test successfully. What is an Adverb? An Adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb. Note: Adverbs often end with “ly”. 1. He is a very intelligent boy. ‘Very’ modifies the Adjective ‘intelligent’ 2. She acted remarkably. ‘Remarkably’ modifies the Verb ‘act’ 3. Her act was remarkable. Here ‘remarkable’ is an adjective modifying the noun ‘act’ Adverbs normally answer the following types of questions: 1. When? She always arrives early. 2. How? He drives carefully. 3. Where? They go everywhere together. 4. In what manner? She eats slowly. 5. To what extent? It is terribly hot. Note: A word that gives more information or modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb is called an Adverb. Adverbs often end with “-ly” like beautifully, shortly, carefully. But in many cases Adverb resemble very closely with Adjectives in a sentence. So follow the examples carefully. Remember that words like manly, weekly, monthly end with ‘-ly’ but they are adjectives and not adverbs. Words like fast, hard, straight, late, safe can be used both as adverb and adjective. But identifying adverbs in a sentence is not very difficult. Normally adverbs answer five types of questions for the existent verb, adjective or adverbs in a sentence: When, How, Where in what manner and to what extent.] Types of Adverbs: 1. Adverb of Time: describes when or for how long a certain action happened. Example words: Already, ago, before, yet, never, soon, yesterday, soon, lately. Example sentences: I have heard this before. I have not seen him since. 2. Adverb of Frequency: describes how often something occurs, either in definite or indefinite terms. Example words: Always, once, seldom, rarely, usually. Example sentences: He often makes mistakes. (Indefinite) I have told you twice. (Definite) 3. Adverb of Place: tells about where something happens or where something is. Example words: Here, everywhere, near, down, away, backward, upward. Example sentences: There was somebody standing nearby. Is that your scarf there? 4. Adverb of Manner: shows how or what way something happens or is done. Example words: So, slowly, badly, beautifully, delightfully, loudly, anxiously. Example sentences: The soldiers fought bravely. Is that so? 5. Adverb of Degree: shows how much, or in what degree or to what extent of qualities, properties, states, conditions and relations. Example words: Almost, fully, rather, quite, too, enough, perfectly, lots. Example sentences: I am fully prepared. I am rather busy. 6. Adverb of Affirmation and Negation: answers that something is true or some equivalent negative statement. Example words: Certainly, surely, apparently, obviously, no, undoubtedly. Example sentences: Surely you are mistaken. He is undoubtedly the best swimmer in the team. Tips on using Adverbs: Now that we have covered the basic knowledge about Adverbs, let us get few tips on usage of some specific adverbs in different types of sentences. Tip #1: Else, Other, Otherwise: Else: should be followed by ‘but’. ‘Except ‘is used before object pronoun (him, her, them, us, me) a) It is nothing else than sheer madness. (Wrong) It is nothing else but sheer madness. (Correct) c) She has no one else to look after her but me. (Wrong) d) She has no one else to look after her except me. (Correct) Other, Otherwise: are followed by ‘than’. a) There is no way of reaching the island other than by boat. A partnership cannot be ended otherwise than by mutual agreement. Tip #2: Never, Not, Nowhere: Never: is always placed after the verb BE or an auxiliary verb. For all other verbs, never is placed in front of the verb. a) They are never late. It never rains in January. Not: Is a negative adverb but the use of ‘never’ in place of ‘not’ is incorrect. a) I never went to Delhi last year. (Wrong) I did not go to Delhi last year. (Correct) Nowhere: is placed directly after the verb. a) This road goes nowhere. Tom has nowhere to go. Tip #3: Seldom or Never, Little or Nothing: Seldom or Never/Seldom, If Ever: used to describe rarely, infrequently. a) The export quality tea is seldom or never used in the country. I have seldom, if ever been so embarrassed. Little or Nothing/Little, If Anything: used to describe ‘hardly anything’. a) I can find little or nothing to fault in this book. There is little, if anything in the fridge to eat. Tip #4: Very, Much: Very: modifies the present particle and is used as an adverb or an adjective in positive degree. a) He is very tired after the journey. She is the very best teacher in our school. (Used in superlative degree) Much: used with comparative degree and with past participles. a) A much loved member of the family. She is much wiser than her mother. (Before a comparative or superlative degree) Tip #5: So, Too, Also: So: should always be used with ‘that’. She is so poor that she could not study further. Too: should always be used with ‘to’. She is too poor to study further. Too, As well, Also: used in the sense ‘besides’ or ‘in addition to’. a) She found her bag and money too/as well. She found her bag and also money. (Note: also is not used in end position) Tip #6: Enough, Rather: Enough: can be used as both an adjective and an adverb. As an adverb it is always placed after the adjective it modifies. a) He has enough money to spend. (Adjective) He was kind enough to help others with money. (Adverb) Rather: is an adverb of degree. It can also be used before a noun with ‘a’ or ‘an’ placed before the noun. a) She is rather intelligent. It is rather a nuisance. c) I would rather have fruit juice. (Used as preference) Tip #7: Often, Usually and Later: Today, Since, Later: used to tell us when or for how long an action happened. They are placed at the end. a) I saw Sally today. I will call you later. c) I have not seen you since Monday. Often, Usually, Rarely: express the frequency of an action. Placed before the main verb. a) I often eat vegetarian food. He rarely lies. c) He usually comes late. d) I am seldom late. Tip #8: Inversion with Adverbs: If an adverb is placed in front of a sentence, normal order of subject and verb is reversed, generally for emphasis. After negative adverbial expressions: Under no circumstances can we accept credit cards. After 'seldom', 'rarely', 'never', and 'little': a) Seldom have I seen such a beautiful view. Rarely did he pay anyone a compliment. c) Never had I felt so happy. d) Little did he imagine how dangerous it would be? After 'only' and 'not only': a) Only when the plane landed safely did he calm down. Not only was the car slow, it was also very uncomfortable. Tip #9: Hardly, Scarcely: Hardly, scarcely: adverbs of frequency meaning ‘almost not at all’ a) She could scarcely keep her eyes open. I hardly know them. They are often used to emphasise that one event quickly followed another. c) Hardly ever did she go on holiday. (She hardly ever went on holiday.) d) Scarcely had she finished reading when she fell asleep. (She had scarcely finished reading when she fell asleep.) e) Barely had they won the match when the coach had a heart attack. (They had barely won the match when the coach had a heart attack.) Tip #10: As, Yes/No: As: should be used to introduce predicative of the verbs like regard, describe, view, know, define, and treat. a) I regard him as my brother He treated him as his younger brother. Exceptions: ‘as’ should be avoided to introduce predicative of the verbs like name, elect, think, consider, call, appoint, make, choose. a) He was elected president of the committee. Yes/No: should be used according to the affirmative and negative answer to the question. Have you taken food? No, I have not taken food. (Yes, I have not taken food- Wrong) Spot the Errors: Can you spot the errors? #1: He plays tennis good. (Incorrect) He plays tennis well. (Correct) #2: I am very much sorry. (Incorrect) I am very sorry. (Correct) #3: She angrily spoke. (Incorrect) She spoke angrily. (Correct) #4: The room is enough spacious for us. (Incorrect) The room is spacious enough for us. (Correct) #5: I know them hardly. (Incorrect) I hardly know them. (Correct) #6: The description was given vivid. (Incorrect) The description was given vividly. (Correct) #7: The flower smells sweetly. (Incorrect) The flower smells sweet. (Correct) #8: He was exceedingly paid for how skilful he handled the crowd. (Incorrect) He was exceedingly paid for how skilfully he handled the crowd. (Correct) #9: They never are pessimistic. (Incorrect) They are never pessimistic. (Correct) #10: She nowhere has to go. (Incorrect) She has nowhere to go. (Correct) #11: He was enough patient to listen to every complaint. (Incorrect) He was patient enough to listen to every complaint. (Correct) #12: He has been in hospital for last Tuesday. (Incorrect) He has been in hospital since last Tuesday. (Correct) #13: She is too beautiful. (Incorrect) She is very beautiful. (Correct) #14: They behaved cowardly. (Incorrect) They behaved in a cowardly manner. (Correct) #15: Never have I seen such a mess. (Incorrect) Never have I seen such a mess. (Correct) #16: I considered him as a friend. (Incorrect) I considered him a friend. (Correct) #17: He plays tennis usually. (Incorrect) He usually plays tennis. (Correct) #18: There is no way of finishing the work other by increasing team strength. (Incorrect) There is no way of finishing the work other than by increasing team strength. (Correct) #19: She knows them scarcely. (Incorrect) She hardly knows them. (Correct) #20: She baked the cake and as well ate. (Incorrect) She baked the cake and ate it as well. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Solving English Grammar Test Questions on Adverbs - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/9-adverbs/1-tips-on-adverbs/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
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