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1. Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation

4 TIPS on answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation Tip 1: Use a physical calculator and a notepad Online proctored tests disallow candidates from using Calculator Software Applications in Desktop/ Laptop/ Mobile Device where the test is being given. However, a separate handheld calculator can be used. Use a notebook with a pencil to jot down relevant numbers to help you in making quick calculations. Tip 2: While calculating averages, it is easier to assume an approximate mean and calculation average of differences from that mean Question: What is the average marks scored by the student across all six periodical exams? Solution: You can assume the mean to be 380. The differences from the assumed mean are: -20, -15, -10, +5, +20, +25 Average of the differences = + 0.83333 Average Marks = Assumed Mean + Average Difference = 380.8333 Tip 3: Percentage of Change (Increase/ Decrease) = Difference/ Original Value * 100 Question: If the expenditure in 2000 is 25% more than expenditure in 1997, then the income in 1997 is what percent less than the income in 2000? Solution: Assume that Expenditure in 1997 is Rs.100. Expenditure in 2000 = Rs.125. Profits in 1997 = Rs45 (45% of expenditure) Income in 1997 = Rs145 Profits in 2000 = Rs75 (60% of expenditure) Income in 2000 = Rs200 Change in income from 2000 to 1997 = Change/ Original Value x 100 = 55/200 * 100 = 27.5% Tip 4: Grasp the information from the chart visually to answer some questions very quickly Question: Nearly 20% of the funds are to be sourced through? Solution: Roughly a quarter of all the funds are to be sourced through this channel. Which implies a sector with an angle of around 90⁰. The only sector with an angle close to 90⁰ is “External Assistance”. (contd..) Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/87-chart-data-interpretation/1-tips-on-chart-data-interpretation/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.

4. Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams

3 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Venn Diagrams Tip #1: Start working from the outermost Venn diagram and gradually move inwards Question: Which of the following diagrams indicates the best relation between Women, Mothers and Engineers? Solution: Some women are mothers and some are engineers. All mothers are women, and some mothers are engineers. However, not all engineers are women. So, the answer is A. Question: In an organization of pollution control board, engineers are represented by a circle, legal experts by a square and environmentalist by a triangle. Who is most represented in the board as shown in the following figure? (a) Environmentalists with Legal background (b) Legal Experts (c) Engineers with legal background (d) Environmentalists with engineering background Solution: We have to assume that the shape with the largest area is the most represented. Among the given options, D (i.e.) Environmentalists with Engineering background has the largest area. Thus, the correct answer is D. Tip #2: Reduce the question as the overlapping of different portions of the Venn diagram In the following figure Upper Square represents the persons who know English, triangle those who know Marathi, Lower Square to those who know Telugu and circle those who know Hindi. In the different regions of the diagram, the counts are given. Question: How many persons can speak English and Hindi both the languages only? Solution: The people who can speak English and Hindi is represented by the portion of intersection of the circle and the upper square only. The no. here is 5. So 5 people can speak Hindi and English both. Question: How many persons can speak all languages? Solution: The people speaking all languages is represented by the portion of the Venn diagram that has all the figures overlapping. Since there is no such area where all the figures are overlapping, it means that no person can speak all the languages. Tip #3: The portion outside a figure represents the complement of the quantity inside it In the following diagram rectangle represents men, Triangle represents educated, Circle represents urban and square represents government employees. Question: How many men are educated but not urban? (a) 9 (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) 11 Solution: Educated but non-urban men is represented by the portion of the triangle that overlaps with the rectangle but not the circle. Thus, 11 men are educated but not urban. The correct answer is D. Question: Which one of the following represents a woman who is urban as well as government employee? (a) 7 (b) 13 (c) 10 (d) 6 Solution: Since the rectangle represents men, the portions of the other shapes that do not overlap with the rectangle represent women. The portion of the circle that overlaps with the square but not with the rectangle represents urban women who are government employees. Thus the answer is 10, i.e., C. (contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/72-venn-diagrams/1-tips-on-venn-diagrams/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.

6. Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Seating Arrangement

TIP on cracking Reasoning Questions on Seating Arrangement Draw a diagram to illustrate the problem: Question: A, P, R, X, S and Z are sitting in a row. S and Z are in the center. A and P are at the ends. R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to the right of P? A. A B. X C. S D. Z Solution: A has to be at the right end otherwise there would be no place to A’s left for R to occupy. S and Z are seated at the central positions, although the specific order in which they are seated is not mentioned. This leaves only 1 space vacant, i.e., next to P and only 1 person, i.e., X. Hence the answer is B. Question: 6 friends are sitting in a circle and facing the center of the circle. Deepa is between Prakash and Pankaj. Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. Prakash and Mukesh are opposite to each other. Who is sitting right to Prakash? A. Mukesh B. Pankaj C. Pankaj D. Lalit Solution: Fixing Prakash’s position, we find Mukesh’s position. Deepa is between Pankaj and Prakash, and this can be on either side of Prakash. Now, Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. This can happen when they are on the opposite side of Prakash. So, either Lalit or Deepa will be to the right of Prakash. So the correct option is D. (contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/76-seating-arrangement/1-tips-on-seating-arrangement/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
7. Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Number Series

3 Tips on Solving Reasoning Questions on Number Series Tip #1: Arithmetic Series, Geometric Series, Patterns in Differences (1) Arithmetic Series: When the differences between the successive numbers given in the series is the same. For example: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14... (Here the difference between the numbers is 3, hence the next number will be 17) (2) Geometric Series: When each successive number in the series is obtained by multiplying or dividing the previous one by a fixed number. For example: 2, 6, 18, 72,… (3) Patterns in differences: Calculate the differences between the numbers given in the series provided in the question. Then try to observe the pattern in the new set of numbers that you have obtained after taking out the difference. Question: Look at this series: V, VIII, XI, XIV, __, XX, ... What number should fill the blank? Solution: This is an arithmetic series in Roman numerals; each no. is 3 more than the previous one. Thus, the missing number will be the Roman equivalent of 20 – 3 = 17, i.e., XVII. Question: Look at this series: 201, 202, 204, 207, ... What number should come next? Solution: The difference between the successive numbers is 1, 2, 3 respectively. Thus, the difference keeps on increasing by 1. Thus, the next number in the series will be 207 + 4 = 211. Tip #2: Pattern in Alternate/Adjacent numbers 1. Pattern in Alternate numbers: When there is a pattern between every alternate or third number in the series. For example: 2, 9, 5, 12, 8 , 15, 11.... 2. (2) Pattern in adjacent number: When adjacent numbers in the series changes based on a logical pattern. For example: 2, 4, 12, 48... Here the numbers are being multiplied by 2, then by 3, then by 4 etc. Question: Look at this series: F2, __, D8, C16, B32, ... What number should fill the blank? Solution: This is a complex series in which the successive letters decrease by 1 and the successive numbers are multiplied by 2. Thus, the number in the blank will be E4. Question: Look carefully at the following series and choose the pair that comes next. 42 40 38 35 33 31 28 A. 25, 22 B. 26, 23 C. 26, 24 D. 25, 23 Solution: This is an alternating subtraction series in which 2 is subtracted twice, then 3 is subtracted once, then 2 is subtracted twice, and so on. So the next terms in the following series will be 26 and 24. Thus the correct answer is C. Tip #3: Prime Numbers, Squares/Cubes, Alternate primes/exponents (1) Squares/Cubes: When numbers are a series of perfect squares. For example: 81, 100, 121, 144, 169... (2) Cube/Square roots: When the numbers are a series of perfect cubes. For example: 512, 729, 1000... (3) Alternate Primes: Here the series is framed by taking the alternative prime numbers. For example: 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 31… Question: Look at this series: 4, 7, 16, 13, __, 19, 64, 29, ... What number should fill the blank? Solution: There are two alternating series here. The first one is the square of the multiples of 2 {22, 42, 62, 82 …} and the second one is a series of alternating prime numbers. The missing number is a part of the first series so the missing number is 62 = 36. Question: Look carefully at the following series and choose the pair that comes next. 4 7 26 10 13 20 16 A. 14, 17 B. 18, 14 C. 19, 13 D. 19, 14 Solution: Two patterns alternate here, with every third number following the alternate pattern. In the main series, beginning with 4, 3 is added to each number to arrive at the next. In the alternating series, beginning with 26, 6 is subtracted from each number to arrive at the next. So the next numbers will be 16 + 3 = 19, 20 – 6 = 14. Thus, the correct answer is D. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
8. Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Letter & Symbol Series

3 Tips on Cracking Reasoning Questions on Letter and Symbol Series Tip #1: Identify the changes happening in the successive patterns of a symbol series. Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: In each segment, the shapes are the same, but the one in the middle is larger than the two on either side. Also, one of the figures is shaded and that this shading alternates between 1st right and then left. Thus in the 3rd segment, there will be two small squares with a big square between them and the right small square will be blackened. Thus, the correct option is (2). Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: In each of the segments, the figures alternate between one-half and one-fourth shaded on the opposite sides. Thus, to complete the last segment, there should be one square that is one-fourth shaded and another that is half-shaded on the left side. Thus, the correct option is (4). Tip #2: Break the complex letter series into simpler ones and solve them individually Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. SCD, TEF, UGH, ____, WKL Solution: There are two alphabetical series here. The first series is with the first letters only, and consists of the consecutive letters of the alphabet starting from S, i.e., S, T, U, V, W. The second series involves the remaining two letters and involving 2 consecutive letters of the alphabet starting from C, i.e., CD, EF, GH, IJ, KL. So the missing term will be VIJ. Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. DEF, DEF2, DE2F2, _____, D2E2F3 Solution: In this series, the letters remain the same: DEF. The subscript numbers follow the following series: 111, 112, 122, 222, 223, 233, 333, ... Thus, the missing term is D2E2F2. Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. JAK, KBL, LCM, MDN, ____. Solution: This series may be broken up into 3 component series. The 1st one is the series J, K, L, M and N. The 2nd one follows the pattern A, B, C, D, E, and the 3rd one: K, L, M, N and O. Thus the missing term is NEO. Tip #3: Eliminate the incorrect choices Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: Since no 2 figures in the same segment are the same, Options (1) and (2) are eliminated. Now, the shading inside the circles gradually increases or decreases. Thus, the correct option is (3). Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. JAK, KBL, LCM, MDN, _____ A. OEP B. NEO C. MEN D.PFQ Solution: The first letter of each term follows the series J, K, L, M and N. This eliminates choices A, C, and D. Thus, the correct answer is B. Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: In all these segments, the count of dots in the bottom box of the previous set equals the count of dots in the top box of the current set. This eliminates options (2), (3) and (4). Thus, the correct option is (1). (contd..) Tips on Letter & Symbol Series - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/71-letter-and-symbol-series/1-tips-on-letter-and-symbol-series/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
9. Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Direction Sense

2 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Direction Sense Tip #1: Make a sketch of the data provided Question: A man walks 5 km toward south and then turns to the right. After walking 3 km he turns to the left and walks 5 km. Now in which direction is he from the starting place? A. West B. South C. North-East D. South-west Solution: As we may see from the figure, the man is finally South-West from the starting point. Thus, the correct answer is D. Question: Ravi left home and cycled 10 km towards South, then turned right and cycled 5 km and then again turned right and cycled 10 km. After this he turned left and cycled 10 km to reach home. How many kilometers will he have to cycle to reach his home straight? A. 10 km B. 15 km C. 20 km D. 25 km Solution: Required distance = (5 + 10) km = 15 km. Thus, the answer is B. Tip #2: Draw a grid in questions when multiple possibilities can occur Question: 8 trees: mango, guava, papaya, pomegranate, lemon, banana, raspberry and apple are in two rows of 4 in each facing North and South. Lemon is between mango and apple but just opposite to guava. Banana is at one end of a line and is to the right of guava tree. Raspberry tree which at one end of a line, is just diagonally opposite to mango tree. Which tree is just opposite to banana tree? A. Mango B. Pomegranate C. Papaya D. Data is inadequate. Solution: Filling Banana first at one end, and Guava to its left, we can find the corresponding position for Lemon, i.e., opposite to Guava. On the sides of Lemon are Apple and Mango. Raspberry is at an end, being diagonally opposite to Mango. Thus, Mango is at the end next to lemon. This, determines the position of Apple and Raspberry as well. The empty positions can be occupied by Papaya or Pomegranate. We see that Mango is just opposite to Mango. So the answer is A. Question: Based on the data given above, which tree is just opposite to raspberry tree? A. Papaya B. Pomegranate C. Papaya or Pomegranate D. Data is inadequate Solution: We can see that either papaya or pomegranate is next to Raspberry. The answer is C. (contd..) Tips on Direction Sense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/77-direction-sense/1-tips-on-direction-sense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
10. Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Dice, Cube & Cuboid

3 Tips on Cracking Reasoning Questions on Dice, Cubes and Cuboids Tip #1: Mentally rotate the dice to see which faces are adjacent and which are opposite 1.Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 4? Solution: 2, 3, 5 and 6 are adjacent to 4 and cannot be opposite to 4. The current answer is 1. 2. Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 2? Solution: From the given figures, it is clear that figure (ii) is obtained by rotating the cube in figure (i) one face to the left while holding the top and bottom constant. Hence, the opposite face of 2 has 4. 3. Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 4? Solution: Figure (ii) is obtained by making two rotations from (i) while holding the front (face with 3) and back constant. Hence, the opposite of 4 is 2. 4. Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 3? Solution: If you mentally rotate cube in figure (i) such that face 1 goes to the right and 5 and 3 are hidden from view with 5 at the bottom and 3 at the back, you will arrive at (ii). Hence, the opposite of 3 is 2. Tip #2: While folding a plus into a cube, the square at the longer end always forms the top of the cube and the middle square at the intersection will be the base of the cube Question: The figure given on the left hand side in each of the following questions is folded to form a box. Choose from the alternatives (1), (2), (3) and (4) the boxes that is similar to the box formed A. 1, 2 and 4 only B. 3 and 4 only C. 1 and 2 only D. 1, 2 and 3 only Solution: The square at the longer end will form the top while the middle square will form the base. The rest 4 sides that consist of 2 unshaded squares and 2 partially shaded squares will form the lateral edges. By rotating the dice formed, we would be able to visualize (1), (2) and (4). So, the correct option will be A. Tip #3: Draw indicative diagrams for cubes and cuboids to simplify the problem A cuboid shaped wooden block has 4 cm length, 3 cm breadth and 5 cm height. Two sides measuring 5 cm x 4 cm are colored in red. Two faces measuring 4 cm x 3 cm are colored in blue. Two faces measuring 5 cm x 3 cm are colored in green. Now the block is divided into small cubes of side 1 cm each. Question: How many small cubes will have two faces colored with red and green colors? Other faces of the small cube could be colored or blank. A. 12 B. 8 C. 16 D. 20 Solution: Cubes painted red and green on two sides will be along the left and right sides (5 cm length each) of the top and the bottom face. Thus, no. of such cubes = 5 x 4 = 20. Answer is D. Question: How many small cubes will have no faces colored? A. None B. 2 C. 4 D. 6 Solution: The cubes that will not be part of the faces of the cuboid will have no color. Thus, no. of such cubes = 2 x 3 x 1 = 6. So the correct answer will be D. (contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Dice, Cube & Cuboid - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/75-dice,-cube-and-cuboid/1-tips-on-dice,-cube-and-cuboid/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.