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  1. 4 TIPS on cracking Aptitude Questions related to Age Tip #1: Choose only one variable to solve the problem Question: Mindy’s current age is 3 times that of her daughter, Cindy. 4 years ago, Mindy’s age was 4 times that of her daughter, what will be Cindy’s age 5 years from now? Solution: Let Cindy’s current age be x. Then Mindy’s age is 3x. According to the question, 3x-4=4(x-4) Or, 3x-4=4x-16 Or, x=12. Thus, 5 years from now, Cindy’s age will be 12+5=17years. Note: More often than not, this type of questions usually contain ages of different people and at different points in time. While you could choose more than one variable to solve the problem at hand, it is always faster and easier to choose one age as x and then relate all the other ones to it according as stated in the question. Tip #2: If the question contains ages at different points of time, choose the present age as ‘x’ Question: Ten years from now, Rachel will be three times older than she is today. What is her current age? Solution: Let current age be x. Then, according to the question, x+10= 3x => 2x=10 => x=5 Note: Age related problems usually contain references to present, past, and future. It is important to choose correctly which one to consider as our variable so as to reach the solution at the quickest. In order to do so, it is best to choose the present age as ‘x’. Tip #3: In questions containing the ages of different people, consider the age of the youngest person to be ‘x’ Question: John’s father is 5 times older than John and John is twice as old as his sister Alice. In two years’ time, the sum of their ages will be 58. How old is John now? Solution: Let Alice’s current age be x. Then John’s age=2x and their father’s age is 10x. According to the question, (x+2)+ (2x+2) + (10x+2) =58 => 13x=58-6 => x=4 => John’s present age=10x4=40 years. Note: Most of the times, these problems mention more than one person’s age that are correlated. It is best to choose the age of the youngest person as x and then relate everyone else’s age to x. Tip #4: Read the question very carefully. The phrase ‘n time more than’ needs to be understood correctly: Question: A’s age is twice greater than B’s. If the sum of their ages is 24, what is A’s age? Solution: Let B’s age be x. Then A’s age= x + 2x= 3x (and not 2x) Now, x+3x= 24 Or, x= 6. A’s age is 3x= 18 years Question: Mary is three times as old as her son. In 12 years, Mary's age will be one year less than twice her son's age. How old is each now? Solution: Let the son’s age be x. Then Mary’s age= 3x. Given, 3x+12= 2(x+12) – 1 => 3x+12= 2x+ 23 => x=11 => Mary’s age= 33 years, Son’s age= 11 years. That wraps up our tips for solving Age-type Questions. All the best. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  2. 3 TIPS on solving Reading Comprehension Questions in Online Tests Tip 1: Read the Question first before reading the passage Promotion of a digital economy is an integral part of Government’s strategy to clean the system and weed out corruption and black money. It has a transformative impact in terms of greater formalization of the economy and mainstreaming of financial savings into the banking system. This, in turn, is expected to energize private investment in the country through lower cost of credit. India is now on the cusp of a massive digital revolution. A shift to digital payments has huge benefits for the common man. The earlier initiative of our Government to promote financial inclusion and the JAM trinity were important precursors to our current push for digital transactions. Already there is evidence of increased digital transactions. The BHIM app has been launched. It will unleash the power of mobile phones for digital payments and financial inclusion. 125 lakh people have adopted the BHIM app so far. The Government will launch two new schemes to promote the usage of BHIM; these are, Referral Bonus Scheme for individuals and a Cashback Scheme for merchants. Aadhar Pay, a merchant version of Aadhar Enabled Payment System, will be launched shortly. This will be specifically beneficial for those who do not have debit cards, mobile wallets and mobile phones. A Mission will be set up with a target of 2,500 crore digital transactions for 2017-18 through UPI, USSD, Aadhar Pay, IMPS and debit cards. Banks have targeted to introduce additional 10 lakh new PoS terminals by March 2017. They will be encouraged to introduce 20 lakh Aadhar based PoS by September 2017. Increased digital transactions will enable small and micro enterprises to access formal credit. Government will encourage SIDBI to refinance credit institutions which provide unsecured loans, at reasonable interest rates, to borrowers based on their transaction history. The digital payment infrastructure and grievance handling mechanisms shall be strengthened. The focus would be on rural and semi urban areas through Post Offices, Fair Price Shops and Banking Correspondents. Steps would be taken to promote and possibly mandate petrol pumps, fertilizer depots, municipalities, Block offices, road transport offices, universities, colleges, hospitals and other institutions to have facilities for digital payments, including BHIM App. A proposal to mandate all Government receipts through digital means, beyond a prescribed limit, is under consideration. Government will strengthen the Financial Inclusion Fund to augment resources for taking up these initiatives. Government will consider and work with various stakeholders for early implementation of the interim recommendations of the Committee of Chief Ministers on digital transactions. Question: How many people have adopted the BHIM App? If the question asks for a very specific value, you don’t have to read the whole passage. You can skim through it until you find the information is needed to answer the question. Tip 2: Use your best judgment on questions related to the Author’s motives, tone, purpose etc Two principles are involved in the controversy about the presence of foreign controlled media in the country; the free flow of ideas and images across national borders and the need to safeguard the national interest and preserve cultural autonomy. Both are valid but both are at loggerheads because each has been used to promote less lofty goals. The first principle conforms to a moral imperative: freedom to expression cannot rhyme with restrictions imposed by any government. But the free flow rhetoric also clouds the fact that the powerful Western, and especially American media, can and often do present, subtly or brazenly, news in a manner that promotes Western political, ideological and strategic interests. Besides, Western entertainment programs present lifestyles and values that run counter to the lifestyles and values cherished by traditional societies. All this explains why so many Indian newspapers, magazines and news agencies have sought protection from the courts to prevent foreign publications and news agencies from operating in the country. Their arguments are weak on two counts. As the bitter debate on a new world information and communication order demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties, many of those who resent Western ‘invasion’ in the fields of information and culture are no great friends of democracy. Secondly, the threat of such an ‘invasion’ has been aired by those media groups in the developing countries that fear that their business interests will be harmed if Western groups, equipped with large financial and technological resources and superior management skills, are allowed to operate in the country without let. The fear is valid but it goes against the grain of the economic reform programme. The presence of foreign newspapers and television channels will increase competition, which, in the course of time, can only lead to the up gradation of dynamic Indian newspapers and television channels, even while they drive the rest out of the market. One way to strike a balance between the two antagonistic principles would be to allow foreign media entry into the country, provided the India state treats them at par with the domestic media on all fronts. On the import of technology, for instance, foreign media cannot be allowed duty concessions denied to their Indian counterparts. Foreign media will also have to face legal consequences should they run foul of Indian laws. Why, for example, should the BBC, or Time magazine or The Economist get away by showing a map of Kashmir, which is at variance with the official Indian map? Why should they go scot-free when they allow secessionists and terrorists to air their views without giving the government the right to reply, or when they depict sexually explicit scenes, which would otherwise not be cleared by the Censor Board? Question: Which of the following seems to be the most likely purpose of writing this passage? a) To criticize foreign media To highlight the steps and caution to be taken about the entry of foreign media (Correct) c) To make the public aware of the technological superiority of western media d) To prevent foreign media from entering our country Here, we can quickly eliminate options A and C. Although the author is critical about the entry of foreign media, he does not wish to prevent their entry but to highlight certain precautions that must be taken. Hence, B would be the right answer. Tip 3: Use only the passage (not your personal opinions, politics and values) in choosing the answer The happy man is the man who lived objectively, who has free affection and wide interest, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they, in turn, make him an object of interest and affection to many others. To be the recipient of affection is a potent cause of happiness, but the man who demands affection is not the man upon whom it is bestowed. The man who receives affection is, speaking broadly, the man who gives it. But it useless to attempt to give it as a calculation, in the way in which one might lend money at interest, for a calculated affection is not genuine and is not felt to be so by the recipient. What then can a man do who is unhappy because he is encased in self? So long as he continues to think about the cause of his unhappiness, he continues to be self-centered and therefore does not get outside, the vicious circle if he is to get outside it, it must be by genuine interests, not by simulated interest accepted merely as a medicine. Although this difficulty is real, there is nevertheless much that he can do if he has rightly diagnosed his trouble. If, for example, his trouble is due to a sense of sin, conscious or unconscious he can first persuade his conscious mind that he has no reason to feel sinful, and then proceed, to plant his rational conviction in his unconscious mind, concerning himself meanwhile with some more or less neutral activity. If he succeeds in dispelling the sense of sin, it is possible that genuine objective interests will arise spontaneously. If his trouble is self-pity, he can deal with it in the same manner after first persuading himself that there is nothing extraordinarily unfortunate in his circumstances. If fear is his trouble, let him practice exercises designed to give courage. Courage has been recognized from time immemorial as an important virtue, and a great part of training of boys and young men has been devoted to producing a type of character capable of fearlessness in battle. But moral courage and intellectual courage have been much less studied, they also, however, have their technique, admit to yourself every day at least one painful truth, your will find his quite useful. Teach yourself to feel that life still be worth living even if you were not, as of course you are immeasurably superior to all your friends in virtue and in intelligence. Exercises of this sort prolonged through several years will at last enable you to admit facts without flinching and will, in so doing, free you from the empire of feat over a very large filed. Question: What happens when you think about cause of your unhappiness? a) You try to introspect and look critically at yourself You realize that the life can lived in different ways c) You try to practice exercise designed to give courage d) You remain a self-centered person (Correct) You may disagree with the opinions of the author, but while answering the question, please select the answer only based on the information provided in the passage. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  3. 2 TIPS on solving Listening Comprehension Questions in Online Tests Tip 1: Ensure that you are well prepared to take the Listening Comprehension Test Ensure that your audio setup is proper: 1. Your headphones work well and you’re able to hear loud and clear 2. Your System Volume setting is set to the Maximum Value 3. Please use the latest version of Chrome to ensure full browser support for playing audio clips. Keep a notebook handy: 1. Jot down quick bullet points about the audio clip as you’re listening to it. This will help you remember the clip easily so that you will not waste time replaying it multiple times. Tip 2: Read the Question first before listening to the clip Questions can be related to a specific piece of information available in the audio clip: 1. “Where is the stadium?” 2. “Who has sponsored the news report?” 3. “How many people are there in the speaker’s family?” For the illustrative questions given above, you need to listen to the clip until the specific piece of information you’re looking for is spoken out aloud. Questions can be contextual, related to the audio clip as a whole: 1. “What is the purpose of the speaker?” 2. “What is the speaker’s profession?” 3. “Where is this conversation taking place?” For the illustrative questions given above, you need to listen to the whole clip to understand the context of the speech. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  4. 2 TIPS on spotting grammatical errors in English sentences Tip 1: Go through all the Tips available for all Modules on English Grammar Spotting Grammatical Errors in English Sentences requires proficiency in English Grammar that can only be obtained by reading Grammar Tips for all the Modules on English Grammar available on Learning Pundits. https://learningpundits.com/course/4-english-grammar/ Tip 2: Rewrite the original sentence from memory on a piece of paper Most readers would not notice that the word “the” is repeated twice in the sentence above. This is because, while reading, the human brain automatically corrects minor grammatical errors. If you cannot spot the error, please commit the sentence to memory and write it down on a piece of paper. Now, compare what you have written down with the original sentence to identify the grammatical error. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  5. 3 TIPS on answering Multiple Choice Questions on Sentences & Clauses Tip 1: Go through all the Tips available for all Modules on English Grammar Proficiency in forming English Sentences requires proficiency in English Grammar that can only be obtained by reading Grammar Tips for all the Modules on English Grammar available on Learning Pundits. https://learningpundits.com/course/4-english-grammar/ Tip 2: When required to arrange jumbled words to form a meaningful sentence, it is often easier to eliminate incorrect options Question: People (P) At his dispensary (Q) Went to him (R) Of a11 professions (S) For medicine and treatment Options: A) RQSP QPRS C) QRPS D) RPQS Answer: QPRS: People went to him at his dispensary of all professions… (Incorrect) QRPS: People went to him of all professions… (Incorrect) RPQS: People of all professions at his dispensary went to him … (Incorrect) The sentences formed by options B, C and D are incoherent and can be eliminated. Thus, the right option is ‘A’: People of all professions went to him for medicine and treatment at his dispensary. Tip 3: When combining sentences to form a paragraph, ensure that there is a logical flow Question: The first and sixth sentences are already given. The four sentences in the middle have been removed and jumbled up. These are labelled as P, Q, R and S. Find out the proper order for the four sentences. 1: What are the causes of our chronic food shortage? P: To find food for these growing new millions is desperate task. Q: Every year, we add more than a crore of persons to our population. R: Despite stupendous efforts by our government, the population is growing unabated. S: The chief cause is population explosion. 6: This unprecedented growth can drag us to the doors of starvation very soon Answer: The Question in 1(“What are the causes of our chronic food shortage?“) is logically followed by S (“The chief cause is population explosion”) as the answer. After offering the answer in S, some further explanation is given in the form of Q and P. Sentence 6 speaks about “unprecedented growth” and this must be referring to the population growth referred to in R, which implies that R must immediately precede 6. Thus, the order of the sentences to form a logically coherent paragraph is 1: S, Q, P, R : 6 (contd..) Tips on Sentences & Clauses - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/31-sentences-and-clauses/1-tips-on-sentence-and-clauses/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  6. 3 TIPS on improving English Vocabulary Tip 1: Utilize vocabulary books and online resources Vocabulary Builder Books: 1. Word Power Made Easy - By Norman Lewis 2. 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary - By Wilfred Funk & Norman Lewis 3. How To Build A Better Vocabulary - By Maxwell Nurnberg & Morris Rosenblum 4. All About Words An Adult Approach To Vocabulary Building - By Maxwell Nurnberg & Morris Rosenblum Online Resources: 1. TALKENGLISH.com - http://www.talkenglish.com/ 2. UsingEnglish.com - https://www.usingenglish.com/ Tip 2: Read, read, read! With a dictionary by your side 1. Read newspapers, blogs and books. Explore the world of fiction and non-fiction and find out what genres you like. 2. You can also use websites like https://www.readanybook.com/ to read free books online. 3. Keep a dictionary handy as you read. Refer to new and unfamiliar words then and there. Tip 3: Play word games 1. Play Scrabble, Crosswords and other Word games to have some fun while improving your vocabulary. 2. http://www.wordplays.com/ contains a lot of useful and fun word games to improve your vocabulary. (contd..) Tips on Improving English Vocabulary - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/29-vocabulary---synonyms-&-antonyms/1-tips-on-vocabulary---synonyms-&-antonyms/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  7. 2 TIPS on learning Idioms and Phrases Tip 1: Utilize vocabulary books and online resources Vocabulary Builder Books: 1. Word Power Made Easy - By Norman Lewis 2. 30 Days to a More Powerful Vocabulary - By Wilfred Funk & Norman Lewis 3. How To Build A Better Vocabulary - By Maxwell Nurnberg & Morris Rosenblum 4. All About Words An Adult Approach To Vocabulary Building - By Maxwell Nurnberg & Morris Rosenblum Tip 2: Understand the meaning, the context and usage of an idiomatic expression Illustrations: A bitter pill Meaning: An unpleasant piece of information Context: Sometimes, a pill is bitter. But, it must be swallowed to improve your health. A piece of news can be unpleasant but it must be accepted and acted upon. Usage: His treachery has been a bitter pill to swallow. Ace in the hole Meaning: Possess a secret advantage Context: An expression that originates from poker, referring to possessing an Ace among the face down cards dealt to the player. Usage: Our ace in the hole left our opponents stupefied; it isn't every day that an NBA star plays street basketball. All thumbs Meaning: Behaving very clumsily Context: If a person has only a thumb and no opposing fingers, he would be very clumsy in handling objects. Usage: I am so sorry I broke your plate. I seem to be all thumbs today. (contd..) Tips on Learning Idioms & Phrases - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/28-idioms-and-phrases/1-tips-on-idioms-&-phrases/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  8. 2 TIPS on learning Homonyms and Homophones Tip 1: Understand the difference between homonyms and homophones Homonyms: Multiple meaning words. 1. The spruce tree… To spruce up… 2. Suit yourself… Wore a suit… 3. Weigh on the scale… Scale the wall… 4. The price is fair… Go to the fair… Homophones: Words that sound alike. 1. Addition for math… Edition of a book… 2. I want to go… I like it too… One plus one is two… 3. Capitol building State capital… 4. Pick a flower… Bake with flour… Tip 2: Useful online resources for learning homonyms and homophones Useful Online Resources on Homonyms & Homophones: 1. https://www.englishgrammar.org/?s=homophones 2. http://a4esl.org/q/h/homonyms.html 3. https://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/100.html LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  9. Grammar Rules with 16 Tips on using Verbs What is a Verb? Verbs are words that describe an action, an occurrence, or a state of being; mental, physical, or mechanical. Verbs form one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. Function of Verb: It answers the following questions a) What a person or thing do? She teaches in school. (active) What is done to a person or a thing? The house was cleaned. (passive) c) What is the time of action? I am going to Jaipur tomorrow. (future tense) d) What a person or thing is? My brother is a doctor. (‘be’ as an ordinary verb) Types of Verbs: 1. Auxiliary Verb (Be, Have, Do): used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a negative or a question: Does Sam write his own reports? 2. Modal Verb: Can/Could, Will/ Would, Shall/ Should, May/Might--used to express ability, possibility, permission or obligation: You can go to school. 3. Transitive Verb: action of verb transits/ passes over to an object: She ate the fruits. (fruits is ‘direct object’) 4. Intransitive Verb: action of verb does not transit/pass over to an object: The cat sneezed. 5. Stative Verb: relates to a state of being, a thought, or an emotion but not an action: He feels elated. 6. Action Verb: expresses physical or mental action: She is walking in the park. (or) He believes that it can be done. 7. Regular Verb: takes add -ed or -d to the base form of the verb to create the past forms: (Play-Played) 8. Irregular Verbs don’t take on the regular –d, -ed, or -ied spelling patterns of the past simple or past participle: (Catch-Caught) 9. Phrasal Verb: made with a main verb and another word (either a preposition or a particle) and forms a meaning different to the main verb: A burglar will often break a window to break in. 10. Finite Verb: shows tense and are conjugated to agree with the subject: She was waiting in the room. 11. Non-Finite Verb: do not show tense. They are of three types: a) Participle: usually formed by adding –ing or –ed to a verb. It functions as an adjective: The singing bird was the main attraction at the event. Gerunds: formed by adding –ing to a verb. It functions as a noun: Smoking is prohibited in the hospital. c) Infinitive: formed by using the word ‘to’ before the verb in its stem word. It functions as a noun, adjective or adverb: Shalini loves to talk. 12. Link Verb: Some verbs are followed by either a noun or an adjective: He became angry. (noun + verb + adjective) 13. Causative Verb: used to indicate that some person/thing makes, requires, forces or helps to make something happen: I made my friend write a letter. Tips on using Verbs: Tip #1: Singular-Plural Subject-Verb Agreement: Subjects and verbs must AGREE with one another in number (singular or plural). a) A singular subject takes a singular verb: The dog growls when he is angry. A plural subject takes a plural verb: The dogs growl when they are angry. c) Phrases between the subject and verb not affect agreement: The dog, which belongs to my relatives, usually growls at strangers. Tip #2: Verbs in Tense In the present tense: Nouns ADD an s to the singular form; Verbs REMOVE the s from the singular form. a) Singular: The dog chases the cat. Plural: The dogs chase the cat. In the simple past tense: The verb remains the same when without any helping verbs. a) Singular: The girl talked to me. Plural: The girls talked to me. Is-are, was-were, has-have, does-do: When helping verbs are used with a main verb, there must be Subject-Verb Agreement: a) Singular: The girl has talked to me. Plural: The girls have talked to me. Tip #3: Unlike, Besides, With, Except As well as, Like, Unlike, Besides, in addition to, With, Together with, Along with, and not, Rather than, No less than, Except, Nothing, No more than: When these words join two or more subjects, the verb is used according to the first subject. a) Nothing but prayer is valuable. (here prayer is in singular number so we use singular verb ‘is’) The coach as well as the players was honored by the government. (the first subject ‘coach’ is singular so we use singular verb ‘was’, not ‘were’) Tip #4: Either-Or, neither Nor Not only-But also, Either-or, Neither-nor, none-but: When these words join two or more subjects, the verb is used according to the nearest subject. a) One or two books is are needed. (Nearest subject ‘books’ is in plural so we use plural verb ‘are’) None but the students are responsible for the chaos in the class. c) Neither the class teacher nor the students were present in the assembly. Tip #5: Each, Every Each, Every, None, Anyone, Neither and Either: When these words are used as pronouns or adjectives, the following verb should be in the third person singular. a) Neither of the two workers have has come today. (Though we are talking about two workers, we still use ‘has’) None: when used with uncountable nouns, verb is singular. a) None of the information is correct. Each: when used after subject, verb is plural. a) They each are obedient. Each of the students is obedient. (Here ‘each’ is an adjective, so singular verb) Tip #6: Many A/An, More than One Many A/An, More than One: These expressions should be followed by a singular noun and singular verb. a) Many a candidate has applied for the job. (The noun ‘candidate’ and the verb ‘has’ is in singular due to use of ‘many a’) Many candidates have applied for the job. (Noun and verb both plural) c) More than one man was absent. (The noun ‘man’ and the verb ‘was’ is in singular due to use of ‘more than one’) d) More men than one were absent. (In case of ‘more men than one’, the verb is plural) Tip #7: Plural Noun (time, distance, period) Amount, Sum, Quantity, Time, period, Distance: When these are expressed using plural nouns, the following verb is singular. a) Two miles are is too far to walk. Hundred rupees is the entry fee. (‘Hundred rupees’ is considered one amount of money) c) Hundred rupees were scattered on the floor. (In this sentence, ‘hundred rupees’ is considered to be hundred individual rupee notes and not a single unit) Tip #8: Collective Noun Family, Herd, Choir, Group, Team, Group and Population: These types of collective nouns are followed by both singular and plural verbs, depending on the intent. a) The class is in session. (Here ‘class’ is referring to the whole group so we have a singular verb) The class are taking their tests today. (The ‘class’ in this sentence is referring to each member as an individual so it uses a plural verb) Tip #9: And If two subjects are joined by "and," the verb is plural: a) Bread and butter are sold here. If the two subjects separated by "and" refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular: a) Bread and butter is difficult to earn. (Here ‘bread and butter’ is a compound noun) Rice and fish is my mom's favorite dish. Tip #10: It, Here, There It: When sentence begins with ‘It’, the verb is according to the subject indicated by ‘It’). a) It is a real challenge to find a good deal on a car. (‘Finding a good deal’ is the subject which is singular) There, Here: When sentences start with “there” or “here,” the subject will always be placed after the verb and verb is conjugated in agreement with the subject. a) There is a problem with the balance sheet. Here are the papers you requested. Tip #11: Number Of, Wages, Means Number of: a) The number of musicians signing to record labels increases each year. A number of musicians intend to get a contract deal each year. Means: a) Means are more important than the ends. A fair means is more important the foul ones. Wage: a) The wages/wage in IT are/is the highest. (wage meaning rate of compensation) The wages of sin is death. (here wage means recompense or return) Tip #12: Plenty, Variety, Lot, Percentage Plenty of, Rest of, Variety of, a lot of, fraction of, Per cent of: In these cases we use singular verb with uncountable nouns and plural verb with countable nouns. a) Plenty of milk is available in the store. (Milk is uncountable so singular verb) A variety of books are available. (Books are a countable noun, so plural verb) Percent/ Percentage: a) Twenty per cent of the students have cleared the exam. The percentage of the successful candidate is low. (Verb is singular in case of percentage) Tip #13: Subjunctive Mood Subjunctive Mood: used to express things that are hypothetical, wishful, imaginary, or factually contradictory. ‘Were’ replaces ‘was’ in sentences that express a wish or are contrary to fact: a) If Ramesh were here, you'd be sorry. I wish it were Saturday. As if/As though: a) She behaves as if she was were the landlady. Tip #14: Subject-Verb Inversion Interrogation: Subject-Verb inversion happens in questions. a) What is the problem? What are the problems? c) Did he come to work on time? Inversion also happens when the sentence is introduced by adverb: a) So quickly did she finish her assignment that we were astonished. Inversion occurs when the verb is meant to be a wish or prayer: a) May you be blessed with a long life. Tip #15: Transitive, Intransitive Verbs Transitive Verb: a) Require an object Transfer their action to the object She wrote a book. (Verb ‘write’ transfers the action to single object ‘a book’) She offered him (first object) her book. (Second object). (Verb ‘offer’ transfers the action to two objects ‘him’ and ‘her book’) Intransitive Verb: a) Don’t require an object They run. (Verb ‘run’ has no object) c) She slept. (Verb ‘slept’ has no object) Tip #16: Irregular Verbs Irregular Verbs: Verbs that don’t take on the regular –d, -ed, or -ied spelling patterns of the past simple (or past participle. Base Simple past Past Participle Be Was, Were, Been Arise Arose Arisen Begin Began Begun Irregular verbs where past and past participle remain the same: Base Simple past Past Participle Bid Bid Bid Cost Cost Cost Hit Hit Hit Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Verbs. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: The percentage of successful candidates are very high. (Incorrect) The percentage of successful candidates is very high. (Correct) #2: My mother no less than my father are strict. (Incorrect) My mother no less than my father is strict. (Correct) #3: Every student and every teacher have participated in the school event. (Incorrect) Every student and every teacher has participated in the school event. (Correct) #4: Three fourths of my salary go to taxes. (Incorrect) Three fourths of my salary goes to taxes. (Correct) #5: Six months are needed to complete the assignment. (Incorrect) Six months is needed to complete the assignment. (Correct) #6: Thirty five percent of the population are educated. (Incorrect) Thirty five percent of the population is educated. (Correct) #7: A lot of my friends lives here. (Incorrect) A lot of my friends live here. (Correct) #8: She requested that he raises his hand. (Incorrect) She requested that he raise his hand. (Correct) #9: A bouquet of yellow roses lend color and fragrance to the room. (Incorrect) A bouquet of yellow roses lends color and fragrance to the room. (Correct) #10: Either Anita or Ashish are helping today with the arrangements. (Incorrect) Either Anita or Ashish is helping today with the arrangements. (Correct) #11: A scooter and a car is my means of transportation. (Incorrect) A scooter and a car are my means of transportation. (Correct) #12: Breaking and entering are against the law. (Incorrect) Breaking and entering is against the law. (Correct) #13: Neither the plates nor the serving bowl go in the dishwasher. (Incorrect) Neither the plates nor the serving bowl goes in the dishwasher. (Correct) #14: Five years are the maximum sentence for that offense. (Incorrect) Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. (Correct) #15: Here is the keys to the first floor room. (Incorrect) Here are the keys to the first floor room. (Correct) #16: I or he are to be rewarded? (Incorrect) I or he is to be rewarded? (Correct) #17: They each is honest. (Incorrect) They each are honest. (Correct) #18: Many an events have taken place in the stadium. (Incorrect) Many an event has taken place in the stadium. (Correct) #19: Plenty of information are available on the internet. (Incorrect) Plenty of information is available on the internet. (Correct) #20: At the party, they enjoyed. (Incorrect) At the party, they enjoyed themselves. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Verbs- https://learningpundits.com/module-view/19-verbs/1-tips-on-verbs/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  10. Grammar Rules and Tips for using Punctuation & Spelling What is Punctuation? Punctuation is a set of rules to place certain marks in a sentence to indicate division or pauses in that sentence, particularly in written communication. Types of Punctuation Marks: (1) Comma , (2) Full Stop or Period. (3) Semicolon ; (4) Colon: (5) Question Mark? (6) Exclamation Mark! (7) Dash and Parentheses (-) (8) Hyphen - (9) Inverted Commas or Quotation Marks “ ” Tips on using Punctuation: Tip 1: Use of Comma 1. To separate words in a list: He lost lands, money, reputation and friends. 2. To write a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition: Pandit Nehru, the first prime Minister of India, died in 1964. 3. To separate an Adverb clause when it is followed by a main clause: When the bus arrives, we will board it. 4. for co-ordinate clauses: His story was, in several ways, improbable. Sportsmen, who are generally superstitious, prefer to wear same jersey. 5. To indicate the omission of a word, especially a verb: Rama received a fountain pen; Hari, a watch. 6. To separate Nominative Absolutes: The wind being favorable, the squadron sailed. 7. To address people: How are you, Mohan? 8. To separate initials and titles: Please call on Mr. Sethi, B.A, LLB. 9. To write dates: He arrived on July 10, 2008 (but no comma required when we write 10th July 2008). NO USE of COMMA: a) When the reported speech is interrogative “Are you coming today?” she asked. When the Adjective clause is restrictive in meaning This is the house that Jack built. c) Before the word preceded by ‘and’ It was a long, dull and wearisome journey. Tip 2: Full Stop 1. To mark the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence We are leaving for Delhi Tomorrow. 2. After abbreviation and initials of names He lives in the U.S.A Mr. A.K. Sharma is our new English teacher. 3. after fractions, amounts, time and date He leaves at 8.30 a.m He was born on 4.09.2013 4. after end of address 10, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Tip 3: Semicolon & Colon Semicolon: 1. To separate the clauses of Compound sentence, when they contain a comma He was a brave, large-hearted man; and we all honored him. 2. In place of ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘because’ to mark end of one thought and continuation to another. Man proposes; God disposes. Colon: 1. before enumeration, examples, etc; as, The principal parts of a verb in English are: the present tense, the past tense, and the past participle. 2. before a long list, quotation or speech Wordsworth wrote: Child is father of man. Tip 4: Questions & Exclamation Marks Question Mark 1. after a direct question: Have you written your exercise? 2. after question tag: They can do it, can’t they? NO QUESTION MARK after an indirect question He asked me whether I had written my essay. Exclamation Mark 1. After Interjections and after Phrases and Sentences expressing joy, sorrow, pride etc Alas! -- Oh dear! What a terrible fire this is! Tip 5: Hyphen 1. To make a compound adjective qualifying a noun She is a well-known actor. 2. after prefixes to separate two vowels Co-ordinate the meeting for me. 3. To write prefixes He is the ex-principal of the college 4. To make compound numbers between 21 and 99 He is gone for twenty-four days 5. To separate or connect the parts of a compound word They conducted a door-to-door campaign. Tip 6: Quotes & Dash Quotes 1. To enclose the exact words of a speaker, or a quotation The king said “Free the prisoners”. 2. To enclose names of books, poems, essays etc. I have bought “The Mahabharata” series. 3. If quotation occurs within a quotation, it is marked by single inverted commas "You might as well say," added the March Hare, "that 'I like what I get' is the same thing as 'I get what I like’.” Dash 1. To indicate an abrupt stop or change of thought They are – I am sure – genuine people. 2. To resume a scattered subject Friends, companions, relatives - all deserted him. Tip 7: Apostrophe 1. To show possession (used with s) Give me Rohan’s bag. 2. After plural nouns of proper Nouns apostrophe is used without ‘s’ She lives in a Girls’ hostel. 3. To show the omission of a letter or letters I don’t need water. 4. To form the plural of letters and figures. You must learn the P’s and Q’s of a language NO APOSTROPHE 1. In case of non-living things The table’s wood wood of the table is shining 2. With pronouns, only ‘s’ is used. Our’s Ours is a big house Tip 8: Capitals 1. To begin a sentence. We are going to watch a movie tonight. 2. for all nouns and pronouns which indicate the Deity or even man in broader sense He is the God. We worship Him. 3. To begin all Proper Nouns and Adjectives derived from them He went to Chennai to learn more about Deccan literature. 4. To write interjections Oh! We are lost. 5. To write a reported speech She said, “I am not going.” 6. To write first person of the pronoun She hates me but I don’t hate her. Tip 9: Numerals 1. If sentence contains one series of numbers, all numbers should be written in figures She has bought 4 tables and 2 chairs. 2. If sentence contains two series of numbers, one series should be written in figures and another in words Five students have secured 90%marks and two have secured 60% 3. When one number follows another immediately, the first one should be written in words and the second in figures The plumber asked for five 4-feet long pipes 4. When a sentence begins with a number, it should be written in words Fifty people are missing following landslide in Uttarakhand. 5. Compound numbers between 21 and 99 are written in words There are fifty-three pages in this book. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a/some Punctuation mistake/s. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Maldives is a beautiful country, the beaches are warm sandy and clean. (Incorrect) Maldives is a beautiful country; the beaches are warm, sandy and clean. (Correct) #2: Prof RK Mishra will be meeting the local MLA tomorrow at 10-30 am (Incorrect) Prof. R.K. Mishra will be meeting the local M.L.A tomorrow at 10.30 a.m. (Correct) #3: Its cloudy-it may rain. (Incorrect) It is/it’s cloudy; it may rain. (Correct) #4: Please send us the following food items; Biscuits Cakes Chips, and Wafers (Incorrect) Please send us the following food items: Biscuits, Cakes, Chips and Wafers. (Correct) #5: He will succeed: you never. (Incorrect) He will succeed; you, never. (Correct) #6: “Can you help me”, he asked? (Incorrect) “Can you help me?” he asked. (Correct) #7: This house is her’s and she has chosen the wall’s colours. (Incorrect) This house is hers and she has chosen the colours of the walls. (Correct) #8: "O! God," he screamed, I have left the keys inside the car. (Incorrect) "O God!," he screamed, “I have left the keys inside the car." (Correct) #9: He is going to mumbai for 31 days. (Incorrect) He is going to Mumbai for thirty-one days. (Correct) #10: The shopkeeper asked me whether I needed 3 2-feet long rulers? (Incorrect) The shopkeeper asked me whether I needed three 2-feet long rulers. (Correct) Tips on Spelling: Tips on Spelling-Double Consonant: 1. When words end with single vowel + single consonant, double the consonant. beg + ed = begged---run + ing = running 2. When words of two or three syllables end with single vowel + single consonant, double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed. begin + ing = beginning -- occur + ed = occurred 3. Double the consonant, while adding ‘er’ or ‘est’ to make comparatives and superlatives. thin-thinner-thinnest--- fat—fatter—fattest 4. Double the consonant, when making noun from a verb. cut-cutter--run-runner 5. Double the consonant, when adding ‘Y’ to make an adjective of a noun. mud-muddy---fun-funny 6. Double the consonant when the stress is on the first syllable of words ending with ‘at, el, ip, op, il’. Travel-travelled-travelling---worship-worshipped-worshipping. NO Double Consonant: 1. If the second syllable is stressed and not the last syllable. listen-listened-listening---benefit + ed = benefited -- suffer + ing = suffering 2. When there is a suffix with a consonant. Sinful, Sadness, Childhood Tips on Spelling-Ending with ‘Y’: 1. Verbs ending with ‘y’ with a consonant before it, change from ‘y’ to ‘i’ before a suffix (ed, er) except ‘-ing’. marry-married- marrying—try-tried-trying 2. Words ending with ‘y’ with a vowel before it, do not change. Obey-obeyed-obeying—pray-prayed-praying Exception-: words like Say, Pay, Lay, etc. change only when ‘id’ ‘ly’ are added. Say-said—lay-laid—day-daily. 3. Nouns and Adjectives ending with ‘y’ with a consonant before them, change from ‘y’ to ‘i’ before a suffix (est, er, full, ly, ness, etc). sunny-sunnier-sunniest—tidy-tidier-tidiest 4. On reverse, verbs ending with ‘ie’, change to ‘y’ when suffix ‘ing’ is added. lie-lying—die-dying Tips on Spelling-Ending with ‘e’: 1. Words ending in silent ‘e’ drop the ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with a vowel. live + ing = living -- move + ed = moved 2. Words ending in silent ‘e’ drop the ‘e’ when suffix like ‘ing’, ‘able’, ‘ary’ and ‘ous’ are added. fame + ous = famous, stare + ing = staring 3. Silent ‘e’ is dropped when ‘y’ is added after a noun. taste-tasty—noise-noisy 4. Silent ‘e’ after the consonant‘t’ is dropped when the suffix ‘tion’ is added at the end. deplete + tion =depletion—pollute + tion + pollution 5. Adjectives ending with ‘le’, drop the ‘e’ when added with suffix ‘y’. subtle-subtly—sensible-sensibly 6. Silent ‘e’ is changed to ‘i’ if the word ends with ‘ce’ and the suffix ‘ous’ is added to it. malice + ous + malicious – space + ous = spacious 7. Words ending in ‘ce’ and ‘ge’ keep the ‘e’ when adding ‘able’ and ‘ous’. notice + able = noticeable--- courage + ous = courageous 8. Words ending in ‘ee’ do not drop an ‘e’ before a suffix. see + ing = seeing---agree + ment = agreement Tips on Spelling-Ending with ‘ll’, ‘n’, ‘c’: 1. When words ending with ‘ll’ are compounded with suffix ‘full’, the second ‘l’ is dropped both from the word and the suffix . skill + full = skilful -- will + full = wilful 2. When words ending with ‘ll’ are compounded with ‘un’, ‘dis’, ‘in’ or other words, ‘l’ is dropped . all + together= altogether—un + till= until 3. Adjectives ending with ‘l’ are written with ‘ll’ when suffix ‘y’ is added at end. final-finally—real-really 4. In words ending with ‘n’, the ‘n’ is retained when suffix ‘ness’ is added at the end. Keen-keenness, mean-meanness 5. When ie or ei is pronounced like ‘ee’ in ‘keep', ‘i’ comes before ‘e’. But after the letter ‘c’, we always write ‘ei’. believe – receive—relieve—conceit 6. Words ending with letter ‘c’ are changed to ‘ck’ when adding ‘ed’, ‘er’, ‘ing’. panic-panicked—picnic-picnicker Tips on Spelling-Making Plurals: 1. The Plural of nouns is generally formed by adding -s to the singular. Boy-boys---pen- pens. 2. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch (soft), -o or -x form the plural by adding -es to the singular. class—classes—box-boxes– buffalo-buffaloes 3. Few nouns ending in -o merely add –s. dynamo-dynamos—ratio - ratios; 4. Nouns ending in -y, preceded by a consonant, form their plural by changing -y into –I and adding –es. Baby—babies---lady—ladies. 5. Words ending in -f or -fe form their plural by changing ‘v’ and adding –es. Thief—thieves—wife—wives. Exception: cliff--cliffs—handkerchief—handkerchiefs– chief—chiefs 6. Few nouns form their plural by changing the inside vowel of the singular. man—men---foot—feet 7. Some nouns form their plural by adding -en to the singular. Ox—oxen—child--children. 8. Words ending with ‘y’ with a consonant before it, change from ‘y’ to ‘ies’ for plural but retain the ‘y’ if it is preceded by a vowel. country—countries—play—plays Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a/some Spelling mistake/s. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: It was the sadest day of my life when I recieved tragic news. (Incorrect) It was the saddest day of my life when I received tragic news. (Correct) #2: It occured to him last week that he was sufferring from jaundice. (Incorrect) It occurred to him last week that he was suffering from jaundice. (Correct) #3: The elder sister had an arranged marryage and the younger one is marriing by her own choice. (Incorrect) The elder sister had an arranged marriage and the younger one is marrying by her own choice. (Correct) #4: He sayed that they praid every day for his speeddy recovery. (Incorrect) He said that they prayed every day for his speedy recovery. (Correct) #5: They will be tieing the knot in a beautyful destination wedding next month. (Incorrect) They will be tying the knot in a beautiful destination wedding next month. (Correct) #6: Finaly he could fullfill his mother’s wish. (Incorrect) Finally he could fulfil his mother’s wish. (Correct) #7: He has loveing personality with some noteable qualities. (Incorrect) He has a loving personality with some notable qualities. (Correct) #8: Please give me three boxs of handkerchieves. (Incorrect) Please give me three boxes of handkerchiefs. (Correct) #9: Theater groups from various countrys are coming to present their playes in the festival. (Incorrect) Theater groups from various countries are coming to present their plays in the festival. (Correct) #10: She paniced after seing the video of the car accident. (Incorrect) She panicked after seeing the video of the car accident. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Spelling & Punctuation - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/26-spelling-and-punctuation/1-tips-on-spelling-&-punctuation/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  11. Tips on Pronouns

    Grammar Rules with 8 Tips on using Pronouns What is a Pronoun? A pronoun is defined as a word or phrase that is used as substitute for a noun or noun phrase in a sentence. It also helps to avoid repetition of noun in a sentence. Example: a) Radhika is a singer and Radhika announced that Radhika’s music album will be released soon. (repetition of the noun ‘Radhika’ makes the sentence cumbersome) Radhika is a singer and she announced that her music album will be released soon. Basic concepts related to Pronouns: 1. Subject Pronoun replaces nouns that are the subject of their clause and can be used to begin sentences. Example: We did a great job. 2. Object Pronouns are used to replace nouns that are the direct or indirect objects of a clause. Example: Give the book to me. Antecedent is a word or phrase that a pronoun refers to. A pronoun must agree in number (singular/plural) with its antecedent. Example: Jatin threw the ball to Nitish, and Nitish threw them it back. ("the ball" is the antecedent of "it.") Forms of Pronouns: Pronouns are formed based on the following three categories: a) Person: Who is speaking? I? He? She? They? Number: Is the speaker/subject is Singular or Plural? I or We? He or They? c) Gender: Is the speaker/subject Masculine, Feminine or Neuter? He? She? It? Case of pronoun: 1. 1st person singular: a) Subject pronoun: I Object pronoun: Me c) Possessive adjective: My d) Possessive pronoun: Mine e) Reflexive pronoun: Myself 2. 1st person plural: a) Subject pronoun: We Object pronoun: Us c) Possessive adjective: Our d) Possessive pronoun: Ours e) Reflexive pronoun: Ourselves 3. 2nd person singular: a) Subject pronoun: You Object pronoun: You c) Possessive adjective: Your d) Possessive pronoun: Yours e) Reflexive pronoun: Yourself 4. 2nd person plural: a) Subject pronoun: You Object pronoun: You c) Possessive adjective: Your d) Possessive pronoun: Yours e) Reflexive pronoun: Yourselves 5. 3rd person singular: a) Subject pronoun: He/She/It Object pronoun: Him/Her/It c) Possessive adjective: His/Hers/Its d) Possessive pronoun: His/hers e) Reflexive pronoun: Himself/Herself/Itself 6. 3rd person singular: a) Subject pronoun: They Object pronoun: Them c) Possessive adjective: Their d) Possessive pronoun: Theirs e) Reflexive pronoun: Themselves Types of Pronouns: 1. Personal pronouns – words that refer to certain person, thing, or group; I, We, He, Him, She, Her, It, They etc. 2. Indefinite pronouns – words that refer to one or more vague, unspecified objects, beings, or places; Everybody, Somebody, Nobody, Several, Each, Either etc. 3. Reflexive pronouns – forms of Personal pronoun ending in –self or –selves; Myself, Yourselves, Themselves, Himself, Herself, Yourself etc. 4. Demonstrative pronouns – words used to point to something specific within a sentence; This, That, These, Those etc. 5. Possessive pronouns – words that indicate possession or ownership; Her, His, Ours, Yours, Its etc. 6. Relative pronouns – words that refer to nouns mentioned previously, acting to introduce an adjective (relative) clause; Who, Which, Whose, Whom, That etc. 7. Interrogative pronouns – words used to ask a question; Who, What, Which, Whose etc. 8. Reciprocal pronouns – words to express mutual actions or relationship; One another, One another etc. 9. Distributive pronouns – words for individuals and objects referring to them one at a time; Either, Each, Every, None, Anyone etc. Tips on using Pronouns: Tip # 1: When to use a Reflexive Pronoun Reflexive Pronouns are used after verbs when subject of the verb is receiver of the action. Avenge, Revenge, Acquit, Adjust, Adapt, Avail etc. are some of the verbs that are used reflexively. a) He resigned from the post of CEO. (No reflexive pronoun required) He resigned himself to his fate. (Here the act of resignation reflects on the subject ‘he’) Reflexive Pronouns are preceded by a noun or pronoun when acting as subject of a verb. a) I myself supervised the event. (‘I’ is precedes ‘myself’) Reflexive Pronouns are NOT used after verbs like Keep, Stop, Move, Qualify, Rest, Hide etc. a) He hid himself under the table. Tip #2: Subject Pronoun Agreement As well as, Together with, Along with, in addition to, Except, No less than: When two subjects in a sentence are joined by these words, the Possessive Pronoun is in accordance with the first subject. a) The teacher as well as the students returned to his classroom. Either-or, neither-nor, not only-But also, none-but: When two subjects in a sentence is joined by these words, the Possessive Pronoun is in accordance with the nearest subject. a) Not only the teacher but also the students returned to their classroom. Possessive Pronouns are NOT used after nouns like Leave, Excuse, Mention, Report, Sight etc. a) The thief fled at his sight at the sight of him. Tip #3: Usage of Apostrophe Apostrophe Mark: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes to show ownership. a) This book is her’s hers. This is their car. (Here ‘their’ is possessive adjective appearing before the noun ‘car’) c) This car is theirs. (Here ‘theirs’ is possessive pronoun) One: When ‘one’ is used as subject of a sentence, the Possessive pronoun should be One’s. a) One should do his one’s duty properly. Everyone should do one’s his duty properly. Tip #4: Subject-Object Singular-Plural Subjective Case of Pronoun: is used when pronoun follows the verb ‘to be’ a) It is me I who have called your mother. Objective Case of Pronoun: is used when pronoun follows and Verb or Preposition. a) They are briefing Rajiv and she her. Order of using Singular Pronouns: is second person, third person and first person (231) in a sentence. a) You, he and I will go out for dinner tonight. Order of using Plural Pronouns: is first person, second person and third person (123) in a sentence, specifically for unpleasant acts. a) We and they will both be punished. Tip #5: Either, Neither, Anyone, None Either, Neither, Anyone, Many a, Each, Every: when these are used as subject in a sentence, the Possessive Pronoun will be in Third Person Singular. a) Neither of the two sisters brought their her bags. Either, Neither, Each other: are used to refer to two persons or things. a) None neither of his legs was injured in the accident. (Used ‘neither’ in place of ‘none’ to refer to either one of the two legs) Anyone, None and One another: are used to refer to more than two persons or things. a) Students should not fight with each other one another. (Used ‘one another’ because there are more than two students) Tip #6: Pronouns in Interrogative Sentences The pronoun in the question tag should be in agreement with subject in the main sentence. a) Samaira is intelligent, isn’t it she? (Note that ‘she’ is used in place of ‘it’ as per the subject ‘Samaira’ and if the main sentence is in affirmative, the following question tag is in negative) Hardly, Seldom, Barely, Scarcely, Few, Little: if these words are used to make a negative sentence, then the following question tag will be affirmative. a) She is seldom late, isn’t is she? Everyone, Everyone, Somebody, Someone, Anybody and None etc.: for these Indefinite Pronouns, ‘they’ is used in the question tag. a) Everyone can succeed, can’t they? Tip #7: Both, Same Both: is not used in negative sense and is followed by ‘and’ in place of ‘as well as’ 1. Both you as well as and your brother are going to high school next year. a) Both of them are not going to high school. (Incorrect) Neither of them is going to high school. (Correct) Same: is not to be used as a pronoun. a) He bought a house and living in the same it. Tip #8: Who, Which, Whom, What Which: is used to make a choice between more than two persons or things. a) Of the three sisters who which is the better singer? Who: as a Relative Pronoun is used as a Subject of a verb in the adjective clause. a) He is a kind of person who, everybody knows, is generous. Whom: as a Relative Pronoun is used as an Object of a verb in the adjective clause. a) A man, whom I have never seen before, was asking about you. What: as a Pronoun is used without antecedent and is used to refer to things only. a) It is incredible what she saw. The movie what that she saw was incredible. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Pronouns. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: He has himself qualified for the job. (Incorrect) He has himself qualified for the job. (Correct) #2: They enjoyed during the winter vacation. (Incorrect) They enjoyed themselves during the winter vacation. (Correct) #3: It will be her who will help you in the kitchen. (Incorrect) It will be she who will help you in the kitchen. (Correct) #4: Yourself chose this path. (Incorrect) You yourself chose this path. (Correct) #5: She has brought sweets for you and I. (Incorrect) She has brought sweets for you and me. (Correct) #6: Neither the players nor the coach was playing in their uniform. (Incorrect) Neither the players nor the coach was playing in his uniform. (Correct) #7: She did your mention during the speech. (Incorrect) She did make mention of you during the speech. (Correct) #8: I and you will go to market tomorrow. (Incorrect) You and I will go to market tomorrow. (Correct) #9: My brother along with his friends is launching their new store next month. (Incorrect) My brother along with his friends is launching his new store next month. (Correct) #10: They and we will not be traveling together. (Incorrect) We and they will not be traveling together. (Correct) #11: Either of the four tires must be damaged. (Incorrect) Anyone of the four tires must be damaged. (Correct) #12: Each one of us should count our bags properly before boarding. (Incorrect) Each one of us should count his/her bags properly before boarding. (Correct) #13: Few men are participating in the blood donation camp, isn’t he? (Incorrect) Few men are participating in the blood donation camp, are they? (Correct) #14: They did not go to Goa for vacations, isn’t it? (Incorrect) They did not go to Goa for vacations, did they? (Correct) #15: Both Reena as well as Sejal are appearing for exams next year. (Incorrect) Both Reena and Sejal are appearing for exams next year. (Correct) #16: I don’t believe in the words what he said. (Incorrect) I don’t believe in the words which/that he said. (Correct) #17: I don’t believe in which he said. (Incorrect) I don’t believe in what he said. (Correct) #18: Please mail it to I. (Incorrect) Please mail it to me. (Correct) #19: Every policeman and every fireman was in their place. (Incorrect) Every policeman and every fireman was in his place. (Correct) #20: The horse fell and broke her leg. (Incorrect) The horse fell and broke its leg. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Pronouns - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/22-pronouns/1-tips-on-pronouns/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  12. Grammar Rules with 7 Tips on using Present Tense Classifying Tenses: Tense is a form of Verb which indicates the time and state of and action or event. Classifying tenses based on the Time of Action: a) He writes letters. (Present Tense: Now- Present time of an action) He wrote letters. (Past Tense: Before Now- Past time of an action) c) He will write letters. (Future Tense: After Now- Future time of an action) Classifying Tenses based on the state of Action: 1. Simple: a) Present: Sings Past: Sang c) Future: Will Sing 2. Continuous (Progressive action): a) Present: Is singing Past: Was singing c) Future: Will be singing 3. Perfect (Completed action): a) Present: Has sung Past: Had sung c) Future: Will have sung 4. Perfect continuous (Progressive action that is ongoing): a) Present: Has been singing Past: Had been singing c) Future: Will have been singing Simple Present: Used to denote habit, custom, practice, permanent activity or general truth. 1. For habitual, repeated actions: a) We catch the bus every morning at 8:00 AM. He drinks tea at breakfast. 2. For general truths: Water freezes at zero degrees. 3. For Instructions: Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water. 4. For Scheduled Events in the Future: His mother arrives tomorrow. 5. To express a future action after conjunctions like after, when, before, as soon as, until: She will see you before she leaves. 6. Narrating a story: Now Rama shoots an arrow at Ravan. Present Continuous: Used for an on-going action in the present or at the time of speaking. 1. A progressive action in the present: It is raining outside. 2. With the adverb ‘always’: He is always watching TV. 3. For Scheduled Events in the Future: The train is arriving in 2 minutes. 4. For indicating negatives: Caroline is not looking for the latest brochure. 5. For interrogatives: Is Caroline looking for the latest brochure? Present Perfect: Used to indicate a link between the present and the past where the action is already completed in the past or still continuing into the present. 1. An action that was completed in the recent past: I have just eaten breakfast. 2. An action that started in the past but is still ongoing: a) I have lived in Bristol since 1984. [Correct: Indicates that I am still living in Bristol] I lived in Bristol since 1984. [Incorrect: Indicates that I am no longer living in Bristol] 3. An action in an unspecified period between the past and now: We have visited Portugal before. 4. A completed action where the time of the action is unimportant: He has read War and Peace. 5. Action performed during a period of time that is not yet finished: She has been to the cinema twice this week. Present Perfect Continuous: Used to imply the duration of an action that has started in the past and continuing in the present or may have just finished. 1. An action that was completed in the recent past: She has been cooking since last night. 2. An action that started in the past but is still ongoing: a) I have been living in Bristol since 1984. [Correct: Indicates that I am still living in Bristol] I was living in Bristol since 1984. [Incorrect: Indicates that I am no longer living in Bristol] c) She has been waiting for you all day. 3. To indicate a negative: Amanda has not been relying on student loans to fund her education. 4. For Interrogatives: Has Amanda been relying on student loans to fund her education? Tips on using Present Tense: Tip #1: Since, For Since: to show a particular time or event from past to present. Used both for present perfect and for present perfect continuous. a) They’ve been staying with us since last week. She has completed two letters since last night. For: used to indicate a period of time from past to present in present perfect continuous form. a) She has been suffering from fever for two days. It’s been raining for hours. Tip #2: Ever, Never Ever: generally used with present perfect tense a) My last birthday was the worst day I have ever had. Have you ever seen a ghost? Never: used as the negative form for the adverb ‘ever ‘in present perfect a) Have you ever met George? Yes, but I’ve never met his wife. Tip #3: Seldom, Often, Generally Adverbs of Frequency such as, often, generally, regularly, seldom, occasionally, rarely, daily, normally, always are used in Simple present tense to depict a habit or action and its frequency. a) Grandfather regularly goes for a walk in the morning. Subir seldom gets up late. c) Pearl usually believes everybody. d) Arnav often comes for dinner to our place. Tip #4: Always Simple Present Tense: here ‘always’ is used as an adverb of frequency, meaning ‘all the time’. a) Suhani always comes in time. I always travel by bus. Present Continuous Tense: here the adverb ‘always’ is used to express an idea that the speaker doesn’t like. a) She is always scolding her children. He is always using junk food. Tip #5: Just, Recently, Already Just, Recently, Already: these time adverbials are used in Present Perfect to refer to actions that have just completed. a) Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of monkey. We have just got back from our holidays. c) I have already had my breakfast. Tip #6: Adverbials of the past Adverbials of Past: do not use the present perfect with an adverbial of the past. a) I have seen that film yesterday. (Wrong) I had seen that film yesterday. c) We have bought a new car last week. (Wrong) d) We had bought a new car last week. It can be used to refer to a time which is not yet finished: a) Have you seen Helen today? We have bought a new car this week. Tip #7: Non-Progressive Verbs Non-progressive verbs: Verbs that describe a state of existence (not an action) are not used with an ‘ing’. a) Verbs of Perception: See, Taste, Smell, Prefer, Please, Look, Seem, Appear Verbs of Thinking: Think, Know, Mean, Mind c) Verbs showing Possession: Own, Have, Belong, Comprise, Possess, Contain d) Verbs of Feeling: Believe, Like, Love, Want, Desire e) He is owning a car. (Wrong) => He owns a car. (Correct) f) She is liking this song. (Wrong) => She likes this song. (Correct) When used as a verb indicating an action in progress, these verbs do take an ‘ing’: State of Existence: a) I think he’s really nice. We have a small flat. c) The soup tastes delicious. d) This perfume smells great. e) Velvet feels so soft. f) You look tired. g) The baby weighs 3 kgs. h) I am hungry. Action in Progress a) I’m thinking of selling my car. We are having some difficulties right now. c) The cook is tasting the soup. d) The girl is smelling the flowers. e) We were feeling our way in the dark. f) They are looking at the pictures. g) The grocer is weighing the apples. h) You’re being a nuisance. Spot the Errors: Can you spot the errors? #1: These grapes are tasting sour. (Incorrect) These grapes taste sour. (Correct) #2: I am thinking you are wrong. (Incorrect) I think you are wrong. (Correct) #3: She is seeming sad. (Incorrect) She seems sad. (Correct) #4: He is having a cellular phone. (Incorrect) He has a cellular phone. (Correct) #5: I think of going to Malaysia. (Incorrect) I am thinking of going to Malaysia. (Correct) #6: She tastes the soup to see if it needs more salt. (Incorrect) She is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. (Correct) #7: They have lunch. (Incorrect) They are having lunch. (Correct) #8: It is smelling like something is burning. (Incorrect) It smells like something is burning. (Correct) #9: Are you forgetting my name? (Incorrect) Have you forgotten my name? (Correct) #10: I am not meaning this. (Incorrect) I don’t mean this. (Correct) #11: We have just returned from a pilgrimage last month. (Incorrect) We have just returned from a pilgrimage. (Correct) #12: Today was the happiest day I ever had. (Incorrect) Today was the happiest day I’ve ever had. (Correct) #13: The train will leave at 19:45 this evening. (Incorrect) The train leaves at 19:45 this evening. (Correct) #14: The book is containing good subject matter. (Incorrect) The book contains good subject matter. (Correct) #15: You studying English Grammar. (Incorrect) You are studying English Grammar. (Correct) #16: I know all about that film because I had seen it twice. (Incorrect) I know all about that film because I have seen it twice. (Correct) #17: I did a lot of work today but I must keep at it. (Incorrect) I have done a lot of work today but I must keep at it. (Correct) #18: He has been sleeping since five hours. (Incorrect) He has been sleeping for five hours. (Correct) #19: Now Netaji entered and addressed the freedom fighters. (Incorrect) Now Netaji enters and addresses the freedom fighters. (Correct) #20: I am having no house to live in. (Incorrect) I have no house to live in. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on present Tense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/10-present-tense/1-tips-on-present-tense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  13. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Prepositions What is a Preposition? A Preposition indicates relationships between two nearby words (between a noun or pronoun and other parts of the sentence) in a sentence and usually appears before a noun or a pronoun. Example: Let's meet near the shopping mall. (Near is a preposition; shopping mall is its object) Forms of Prepositions: a) Prepositions of Place tell you where something happened. Example: We saw a movie at the theater. Prepositions of Time when something happened. Example: We saw the movie at 3.30 this afternoon. c) Prepositions also indicate direction, spatial relationships, as well as other abstract types of relationships. Example: Look to the left and you’ll see the movie theater. d) Some prepositions are two or three word phrases known as Complex Prepositions or Prepositional Phrases. Example: He got the job in spite of his poor results. Prepositions of Place: 1. In: This is used to indicate a place inside a room, house, town, city etc a) I watch TV in the living room. I live in New Delhi. 2. At: An exact position or place or event a) She met him at the concert. I met him at the door. 3. On: Above a surface, a particular side, a floor in the house, for television etc. a) My apartment is on the third floor. I watched the Mahabaratha on TV. 4. From: In the sense of ‘where from’ a) I bought dresses from the mall. 5. Under/ Below: Lower or above something a) The birds are flying below the clouds. 6. By/ Near/ Beside/ Next to: Adjacent to something a) Dilip is waiting by the car. 7. Over: exceeding, overcoming an obstacle, above a) They climbed over the wall to flee. He is over 70 years old. Prepositions of Time: 1. At: A certain point in time a) I will meet you at lunch time. 2. On: Days, weekends. a) What are you doing on Sunday? 3. In: Certain periods of time, months, seasons, mornings etc. a) It gets cold in winter. 4. Since/ For: From a certain point in time in the past till now. a) He has been living in Jaipur since 2010. She has been sleeping for more than ten hours. 5. Ago: A certain time in the past a) He came to Jaipur two years ago. 6. Before: Earlier than a certain point in time a) He goes for a walk before dawn. 7. From: The time when something starts a) The shop remains open from 9:30 AM till 10:00 PM. 8. Till/ Until: up to a certain point in time a) He waited until half past six. 9. By: Not later than; at or before a) He returns from school by 5 o’clock. Other Types of Prepositions: 1. Off: Leaving a public transport vehicle a) She got off the train. 2. Of: Expressing amount or ownership a) She is a friend of mine. Show her the picture of the palace. 3. Out of: Leaving a vehicle or a building a) She got out of the lift in a hurry. 4. About: Dealing with a certain topic a) We were talking about the movie. 5. By: a method of travelling; indicating the creator; indicating a change/ progression a) This book was written by Ruskin Bond. Prices have risen by 2.5 percent. 6. At: Indicating age a) She learned to drive at 65. 7. On: A method of travelling a) He got there by foot. Please get on the bus before it starts. 8. From: expressing origin or a change in state a) It is a gift from Ashish. The fever went from bad to worse. 9. In: Entering a car/ taxi a) I asked her to get in the car. Tips on using Prepositions: Tip #1: What follows a Preposition? Preposition is ALWAYS followed by: a) Noun: The coffee is on the table. Proper noun: He is going to Raipur. c) Pronoun: Mahesh gave it to them. d) Noun group: I took a drive with my new car. e) Gerund: He went crazy on hearing the news. Preposition is NEVER followed by a verb: If a Preposition is followed by a verb, then it should be in ‘-ing’ form, which means a gerund or verb in noun form. a) I always dream about winning the lottery. Tip #2: Cases where a Preposition is not followed by an object A. The object in interrogative pronoun is understood: 1) That is something with which I cannot agree. (Incorrect) 2) That is something I cannot agree with. (Correct) B. The object of the preposition is relative pronoun ‘that’: 1) This is the book of that he always talks. (Incorrect) 2) This is the book that he always talks of. (Correct) C. Preposition is placed after the infinitive if the infinitive qualifies the noun: 1) He gave me a pen to write. (Incorrect) 2) He gave me a pen to write with. (Correct) Tip #3: Preposition with Pronouns Preposition with Pronouns: If object of the preposition is a pronoun then it should be in the objective form (me, her and them), not subjective form (I, she and they). a) This is from my wife and I. (Incorrect) This is from my wife and me. (Correct) Tip #4: Omission of Preposition Await, Lack, Regret, Concern, Board, Ensure, Affect, Sign, Join, Direct, Order, befall, Eschew, Attack, Invade, Resist, Resign, Reach, Succeed, Precede, Pervade, Resemble, Demand, Consider, Violate, Accompany, Comprise, Investigate, Discuss, Enter, Stress, Emphasize: When these verbs are used in active form NO Preposition is used after them. a) She resembles with her sister. I will discuss about the subject with the teacher. Omission of Preposition ‘to’: When verbs of communication like ‘advise, tell, ask, beg, command’ etc. are used before an object, then ‘to’ should not be used with the verb. a) I advised to him to go. Tip #5: Since ‘Since’ as a Preposition: is used to express some definite time from the past till the present. a) The person is missing since last Monday. ‘Since’ as a Conjunction: joining two sentence clauses a) Many things have changed since I left the city. Since you will not work, you shall not eat. (as conjunction meaning ‘because’) ‘Since’ as Adverb: is used to express ‘from a time in the past till now’. a) He left the city in 1998 and I have not seen him since. Tip #6: To & Beside ‘To’ as a Preposition: a) I am used to driving. ‘To’ as an Infinitive: a) I love to drive. (here the verb ‘drive’ is in its basic form and is not the main verb, so it is an infinitive preceded by ‘to) ‘Beside’ and ‘Besides’: a) She sat beside the table. (here ‘beside ‘ means near) Besides Bharatnatyam she also learning Kathak. (here ‘besides’ means in addition to) Tip #7: On Vs. In and Upon ‘On’ and ‘In’: ‘In’ is used to refer to ‘by end of the specified time’ whereas ‘On’ is used to denote the exact time, neither before nor after. a) The train will leave in ten minutes. The train is on time. ‘On’ and ‘upon’: ‘On’ and ‘upon’ are prepositions that convey same meaning and can be used interchangeably. However, in some cases ‘on’ is used to denote position where as ‘upon’ is used to denote some movement. a) The pillow is on the bed. He threw the pillow upon the bed. ‘On’ as preposition of Time and Place: a) The shop remains closed on Sunday. (Time) The shop is on the right. (Place) Tip #8: In Vs. Into, At and Within ‘In’ and ‘at’: ‘In’ is used in wider and bigger sense of town, cities, countries etc. But ‘At’ is used to denote comparatively smaller places. a) She lives at Laketown in Kolkata. (Kolkata is a big city but ‘Laketown’ is a small locality.) ‘In’ and ‘into’: ‘In’ is used to denote position whereas ‘Into’ is used to express motion toward something. a) I live in this house. (‘In’ refers to the position where I live.) I walked into the house. (‘Into’ refers to my movement towards the house) ‘In’ and ‘within’: ‘In’ is used to refer to the end of a specific time, whereas ‘Within’ is used to denote ‘before the end of specified time’. a) He will return in five minutes. He will return within five minutes. Tip #9: Preposition or Adverb? Identify Preposition from Adverb: A preposition always has an object. An adverb never has an object. a) Please come in the kitchen. (Preposition ‘in’ has object ‘the kitchen’) Please come in. (adverb ‘in’ has no object; it qualifies the verb ‘come’) Tip #10: By & With ‘By’ and ‘With’: a) He struck the bird with an arrow. (‘With’ is used to denote instrument, equipment) The bird was struck by the archer. (‘By’ is used for the ‘doer’ of the action) Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Prepositions. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: He ordered for the employee’s transfer. (Incorrect) He ordered the employee’s transfer. (Correct) #2: I am concerned with your health. (Incorrect) I am concerned for your health. (Correct) #3: Ravi is more concerned for getting the job done. (Incorrect) Ravi is more concerned with getting the job done. (Correct) #4: I left home at Monday morning to catch a flight for Bangalore. (Incorrect) I left home on Monday morning to catch a flight to Bangalore. (Correct) #5: He is one of the best players from India and he takes pride of it. (Incorrect) He is one of the best players in India and he takes pride in it. (Correct) #6: I look forward to see you. (Incorrect) I look forward to seeing you. (Correct) #7: I dived in the water. (Incorrect) I dived into the water. (Correct) #8: The road repair work disrupted the traffic from two days. (Incorrect) The road repair work disrupted the traffic for two days. (Correct) #9: I informed to the police of the burglary. (Incorrect) I informed to the police of the burglary. (Correct) #10: The lion attacked on the deer. (Incorrect) The lion attacked on the deer. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Prepositions - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/20-prepositions/1-tips-on-prepositions/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  14. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips for using Past Tense Classifying Tenses: Tense is a form of Verb which indicates the time and state of and action or event. Classifying tenses based on the Time of Action: a) He writes letters. (Present Tense: Now- Present time of an action) He wrote letters. (Past Tense: Before Now- Past time of an action) c) He will write letters. (Future Tense: After Now- Future time of an action) Classifying Tenses based on the state of Action: 1. Simple: a) Present: sings Past: sang c) Future: will sing 2. Continuous (progressive action): a) Present: is singing Past: was singing c) Future: will be singing 3. Perfect (completed action): a) Present: has sung Past: had sung c) Future: will have sung 4. Perfect Continuous (progressive action that is ongoing): a) Present: has been singing Past: had been singing c) Future: will have been singing Simple Past: Used to describe a completed activity that happened in the past a) Simple fact- happened once: We went to Spain for our holidays. Frequency: When I was a boy I walked a mile to school every day. c) Duration: I lived abroad for ten years. d) Definite and Indefinite Point in Time: I went to the theatre last night. (Definite) People lived in caves a long time ago. (Indefinite) e) Negative version- use didn’t (did not): I didn’t see you yesterday. f) Interrogative version-use did : Where did you go for your holidays? Past Continuous: Describes actions or events which began in the past and continued for a period of time. Also used to set the scene for another action. a) Unfinished action -interrupted by another action: I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm clock rang. Two actions- happening at same time: While they were painting the door, I was cleaning the doors. c) Repeated actions: They were always quarrelling. d) Story Telling: The sun was shining and the birds were singing. e) Show change or growth: Her English was improving. Past Perfect: Used to emphasize that an action was already completed with reference to another event in the past. a) Actions completed: I had finished the work. One event happened before another: The weather changed, but the team had planned its next move. c) Reporting: Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping. d) Conditions, hypotheses and wishes: I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month. e) Negative and Interrogative version: The weather changed, and the team had not planned its next move. Had the team planned its next move before the weather changed? Past Perfect Continuous: Used for an action that began before a certain point in the past and continued for a while in the past but had ended before that point in time. a) Actions that started in the past and continued for a while: Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours. Repeated actions that continue after that point: He had been playing guitar ever since he was a teenager. c) Duration- using Since: They had been staying with us for over a month. d) To indicate a negative: She had not been painting the door. e) For Interrogatives: Had she been painting the door? Tips on using Past Tense: Tip #1: Just Just: used with the Past Perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before. Formation: Had + Past Perfect +Just Example: a) The train had just left when I arrived at the station. She had just left the room when the police arrived. c) I had just put the washing out when it started to rain. Tip #2: Wonder Wonder: used to make a very polite request in Past Continuous form, although the request is being made in the present. Formation: Past form of ‘be’ verb + wondering Example: I was wondering if you could babysit for me tonight. Tip #3: Ago Ago: a useful way of expressing the distance into the past. It is placed after the period of time Formation: period of time + ago A week ago, three years ago, a minute ago. Example: a) I met him two months ago. Two weeks ago they moved to a new place. Tip #4: Did Did: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past, use 'did'. a) Did he go to the cinema last night? He didn't go to bed early last night. c) We didn't do our homework last night. d) Did you do much climbing in Switzerland? When the question statement does not use subject-verb inversion, do not use ‘did’. a) Who did discover India? (incorrect) Who discovered India? (correct) Tip #5: If If: used in the past perfect talking about something which did not happen in the past. a) If we hadn’t spent all our money, we could take a holiday. If I had had time, I would have been able to complete this task. Tip #6: Wish Wish: is used with other verbs (which are in the past perfect) to talk about wishes for the past. a) I wish I had worked harder when I was at school. I wish it had snowed yesterday. Wish is used with other verbs (which are in past tense forms) to talk about wishes for the present. a) I wish it wasn’t so cold. I wish I had more money. Tip #7: Seldom, Often, Generally Adverbs of Frequency such as, often, generally, regularly, seldom, occasionally, rarely, would, used to, always are used in Simple Past Tense to depict a habit or action and its frequency. a) They never drank wine. He always carried an umbrella. c) I used to go to Mumbai by train. d) She would go there daily. Tip #8: Since, Before, Last Definite point of time in the past: is denoted by words like since, earlier, ever since, last, back, yesterday, the other day etc for Simple Past Tense. a) I met your brother yesterday. She went to Spain last month. c) The other day when I went to market, I met John. d) Ever since I met you I've liked you. Tip #9: Ever, Already, Yet Ever, Before, Already, Yet, After, By the time, So far, Till are used to imply/indicate preceding action in Past Perfect Tense. a) I had already taken breakfast. I had finished the book before he came. c) I had returned from college then. d) I finished my homework after I had returned from school. Tip #10: Want, Hope, Expect Want, Hope, Expect, Intend, Mean Suppose and Think: when used in Past Perfect tense, these words indicate that the action intended did not take place. a) I had wanted to help my brother. (But could not help) I had expected to pass. c) My sister had hoped that her friend would help her. d) Mihir had intended to set up his own business. Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Past Tense. #1: She has bought a car two years ago. (Incorrect) She had bought a car two years ago. (Correct) #2: The house was belonging to him. (Incorrect) The house belonged to him. (Correct) #3: She swept the floor when I called on her. (Incorrect) She was sweeping the floor when I called on her. (Correct) #4: He didn’t knew the answer. (Incorrect) He didn’t know the answer. (Correct) #5: She had been knowing him for two years. (Incorrect) She had known him for two years. (Correct) #6: The light went out while I read a book. (Incorrect) The light went out while I was reading a book. (Correct) #7: I breaked my arm when I was 12. (Incorrect) I broke my arm when I was 12. (Correct) #8: Where was you last weekend? (Incorrect) Where were you last weekend? (Correct) #9: She was owning this flat in Mumbai for ten years but never telled any one. (Incorrect) She owned this flat in Mumbai for ten years but never told anyone. (Correct) #10: The movie already started when we entered the theater. (Incorrect) The movie had already started when we entered the theater. (Correct) #11: What was the policeman doing when the accident was happening? (Incorrect) What was the policeman doing when the accident happened? (Correct) #12: He has been going to college since August but then stopped attending classes. (Incorrect) He had been going to college since August but then stopped attending classes. (Correct) #13: All the students listening to the professor carefully when the bell rang. (Incorrect) All the students were listening to the professor carefully when the bell rang. (Correct) #14: It rained when we left the apartment, so we took the umbrella. (Incorrect) It was raining when we left the apartment, so we took the umbrella. (Correct) #15: She constantly sang. (Incorrect) She was constantly singing. (Correct) #16: I was living abroad for ten years. (Incorrect) I lived abroad for ten years. (Correct) #17: I meet my wife a long time ago. (Incorrect) I met my wife a long time ago. (Correct) #18: The other day I am waiting for a bus when… (Incorrect) The other day I was waiting for a bus when… (Correct) #19: I would have helped him if he was asking. (Incorrect) I would have helped him if he had asked. (Correct) #20: We not got home until very late last night. (Incorrect) We didn’t get home until very late last night. (Correct) (contd..) Tips on Past Tense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/11-past-tense/1-tips-on-past-tense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  15. Grammar Rules with 10 Tips on using Nouns What is a Noun? A noun is a word that denotes the name and quality of a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Functions of Noun: a) Noun as a subject: tells us what that sentence is all about. Harish plays with a cricket bat. Noun as a direct object: receives action from verbs. Harish plays with a cricket bat. c) Noun as an indirect object: receives the direct object. Harish threw Arun the ball. d) Noun as the object of a preposition: follows the prepositions in prepositional phrases. John threw the ball at Arun. e) Noun as a predicate nominative: follows linking verbs and renames the subject. Harish is a cricket player. f) Noun as an object complement: completes the direct object. They named their dog Rusty. g) Noun as an appositive: renames other nouns. My friend Harish likes to play cricket. Types of Nouns: a) Abstract noun names an idea, event, quality, or concept that can’t be seen or touched. (Bravery, determination, freedom, love, courage, joy etc.) Concrete noun can be seen or touched and is recognizable through the senses. (Tree, hammer, table, dog, house etc.) c) Collective noun denotes a group of things or people as a unit. (Team, choir, pack, family, flock, audience etc.) d) Common noun is the name of a class or a group of similar things. (Girl, boy, dog, table, book, window etc.) e) Proper noun refers to the given name of a single person, place or thing. Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. (New Delhi, Himalayas, New York etc.) f) Compound nouns refer to two or more nouns combined to form a single noun. (Rainfall, bedroom, passer-by, sister-in-law, schoolboy, fruit juice etc.) g) Countable nouns can be counted and they have a singular and a plural form. (Books, cars, dogs, friends, chairs, houses, boys etc.) h) Uncountable nouns can't be counted and can only be used in the singular form. (Milk, food, music, money, bread, water, coffee etc.) i) Animate noun refers to a person, animal, or other creature. (Bird, man, elephant, chicken etc.) j) Inanimate or Material noun refers to a material object. (Gold, stone, wood, table etc.) k) Possessive noun shows ownership or a relationship of belonging between one thing and another using apostrophe with‘s’. (Jeet’s car, mother’s house, day’s work etc.) l) Verbal noun is derived from verbs but has no verb-like properties. (A good building, a fine drawing etc.) m) Singular noun refers to one person, place, idea or thing. (Man, box, hand etc.) n) Plural noun refers to more than one person, place, idea or thing and generally ends with‘s’ except for Irregular Nouns. (Men, boxes, hands etc.) o) Gendered noun shows Masculine, Feminine, Common and Neuter gender by different forms or different words when referring to people or animals. (Example of Masculine-Feminine are: man-woman, father-mother and rooster-hen. Nouns like cousin, teenager, teacher, doctor, student and friend are Common Gender, can be used for either a masculine or a feminine context. Neuter Gender denotes a thing that is neither male nor female like book, pen etc.) Capitalization of Nouns: 1. When noun is at beginning of a sentence. Dogs are barking. 2. Always use capital letters for Proper Nouns: capital letters for the names of people, places, planets, titles of rank or relationship (when joined to person’s name, e.g., Sergeant Singh, Uncle Tom), months, holidays, departments, clubs, companies, institutions, bridges, buildings, monuments, parks, ships, hotels, streets, historical events, documents, titles of books, works and movies, months of the year, days of the week, holidays and names of countries, continents, rivers, cities, towns etc. 3. Do not use a capital letter for a common noun unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. Examples: a) The next church the tourists visited was the Church of England. (The word ‘church’ is a common noun. Church of England is a proper noun and is the name of the particular church.) The day is celebrated as Friendship Day. (‘day’ is common noun but ‘Friendship Day’ is proper noun) Tips on using Nouns: Tip #1: Advices, an Advice, Some Advice Advice, Employment, Information, Equipment and Machinery: Uncountable Nouns like these are used in singular form only. § I don’t like taking advices. Indefinite article is not used before Uncountable nouns. a) She gave me an information. She gave me a piece of information. (Indefinite article used to denote singularity) c) Remain true to your words. (‘Word’ in sense of message, discussion, promise) ‘Much’ and ‘some’ is used to denote Plurality in place of ‘Many’. He gave me some advice. Tip #2: Collective Noun Team Staff, Herd, Committee, House, Jury, Family, Mob, Crowd, Board, Police and Public: These Collective Nouns can be singular or plural depending on the context of the sentence. Singular: Used with a singular verb when they focus on the individual elements acting together as one unit. The audience was spellbound. (Here ‘audience’ is a single unit) Plural: Used with plural verb when they focus on the individuals among the group. The audience were asked to take their seats. (Here ‘audience’ is seen as many individuals) Cattle, Gentry, Peasantry, Poultry, Clergy, People, Majority and People: these are always used with a plural verb. Cattles are grazing in the field. Tip #3: Plural Nouns with Singular Verb News, Series, Innings and Summons: Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb. News is broadcasted in the evening. Branches of Learning: Mathematics, Physics, Economics, Statistics (as subject, not collection of data) Mechanics is gaining popularity. Games and Sports: Billiards, Athletics, Aquatics, Gymnastics Athletics is encouraged among kids. Diseases: Mumps, Measles, Rickets Is Mumps a contagious disease? Titles of Books: The Three Musketeers, Arabian Nights Gulliver’s Travels is my favorite book. Descriptive Names of Countries: United States, Unites Arab Emirates The United States is a great country to live in. Tip #4: Plural Nouns with Plural Verb Thanks, Proceeds, Alms, Riches, Contents, Orders, Manners, Servings, Ashes, Archives, Rations, Customs and Requirements: Some nouns have a fixed plural form and take a plural verb. a) Savings are deposited in the bank. Statistics are collected from surveys. (Here ‘statistics’ is not a subject but collection of data) Articles of Dress: Trousers, Breaches, Jeans. a) My trousers are too tight. Her jeans are blue. Names of Instruments: Scissors, Spectacles, Shears, Scales. a) Those glasses are his. Scissors are made of metal. Tip #5: Nouns with Numbers Numerical + Noun: when a Compound Noun is made of numerical and acts as an Adjective, it is used as a Singular noun. a) It is a ten-mile race. Give me a five-rupee note. Nouns expressing number: used in singular with numerical adjectives. a) Give me two dozens apples. I gave him two hundreds rupees. Use of Fractions: With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder—if the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb. a) One-third of the city is unemployed. One-third of the people are unemployed. Tip #6: Possessive Noun with Apostrophe and ‘S’ If the noun is plural, or already ends in‘s’, just add an apostrophe after the‘s’:. a) Which way is the Girls’ hostel? I have a complete collection of Kalidas’ works. In Compound Noun, apostrophe with‘s’ should be added with last word only. She went to her mother’s-in-law’s place. Apostrophe is not used with Pronouns but‘s’ is retained. We write ‘yours truly’ at end of letters. Tip #7: Possessive Noun with and, Else Two nouns in possessive case joined by ‘and’ denote plural: Sumeet’s and Raghav’s mothers are coming to meet the teacher. (the mother of Sumeet and Raghav, two different persons.) Two nouns joined by ‘and’ but only one is in possessive case, it denotes singular: Sumeet and Raghav’s mother is coming to meet the teacher. (the mother of two brothers Sumeet and Raghav, same person.) ‘Else’ takes the apostrophe with‘s’ when combined with Indefinite Pronouns: a) This is somebody else’s book. Whose else can it be? [Note: Possessive case of “Who else” is “Whose else” and NOT “Who else’s”] Tip #8: With Adjective and Preposition Two adjectives with different meanings but both qualifying the same noun are considered plural and used with plural verbs: a) Social and political scenario are changing in the country. Summer and winter vacations are planned before the beginning of a new session. If a noun is repeated after a preposition, the noun will be in singular form. a) We went door to doors looking for the boy. She took the notes of the lecture’s speech, word for word. Tip #9: Making Plurals Irregular Nouns make plurals without adding ‘s’ to it: woman-women, child-children, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, wife-wives, cactus-cacti, diagnosis-diagnoses, oasis-oases, thesis-theses, crisis-crises, phenomenon-phenomena, datum- data, criterion- criteria, life-lives, elf-elves, loaf-loaves, potato-potatoes, tomato- tomatoes, focus-foci, fungus- fungi, nucleus-nuclei, syllabus-syllabi/syllabuses, analysis- analyses. a) The king had four wives. She is his wife. Some irregular nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural: Sheep-Sheep, Deer-Deer, Species-Species and Aircraft- Aircraft a) Ten aircraft are waiting on the tarmac. The aircraft is waiting for take-off. Tip #10: Change in Meaning with Plural Some Noun take different meaning when converted to plural adding‘s’: a) water: material; waters: sea Asset: quality; assets: property c) Wood: material; woods: property d) Custom: ritual; customs: tax e) Arm: organ; arms: weapon f) Cloth: material; clothes: dress g) Iron: material; irons: chains Spot the Errors: Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Nouns. See if you can spot that mistake. #1: Coffee keep me awake at night. (Incorrect) Coffee keeps me awake at night. (Correct) #2: The next Lake I want to visit is lake Michigan. (Incorrect) The next lake I want to visit is Lake Michigan. (Correct) #3: There are a pack of hyenas outside. (Incorrect) There is a pack of hyenas outside. (Correct) #4: Economics are the study of demand and supply in market structure. (Incorrect) Economics is the study of demand and supply in market structure. (Correct) #5: The binoculars was very expensive. (Incorrect) The binoculars were very expensive. (Correct) #6: Sheeps are grazing in the field. (Incorrect) Sheep are grazing in the field. (Correct) #7: Alms is given as an act of charity. (Incorrect) Alms are given as an act of charity. (Correct) #8: Measles are very common among children. (Incorrect) Measles is very common among children. (Correct) #9: The poultry is mine. (Incorrect) The poultry are mine. (Correct) #10: She lives with her two daughter-in-laws. (Incorrect) She lives with her two daughters-in-law. (Correct) #11: The Japanese is a hard-working people. (Incorrect) The Japanese are a hard-working people. (Correct) #12: There are many different people in Europe. (Incorrect) There are many different peoples in Europe. (Correct) #13: Dot your i-s and cross your ts. (Incorrect) Dot your i's and cross your t's. (Correct) #14: I brought somebody’s else book from the library by mistake. (Incorrect) I brought somebody else’s book from the library by mistake. (Correct) #15: He studies in the Municipality Boys’s school. (Incorrect) He studies in the Municipality Boys’ school. (Correct) #16: He has committed many mischiefs. (Incorrect) He has committed much mischief. (Correct) #17: The summons have been served on him. (Incorrect) The summons has been served on him. (Correct) #18: A five-kilometer races are arranged during annual sports events. (Incorrect) A five-kilometer race is arranged during annual sports events. (Correct) #19: I cannot find my wallet but your’s is on the table. (Incorrect) I cannot find my wallet but yours is on the table. (Correct) #20: Dev and Ruhi’s family are coming for the party. (Incorrect) Dev and Ruhi’s family is coming for the party. (Correct) (contd..) 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