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  1. 4 TIPS on answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation Tip 1: Use a physical calculator and a notepad Online proctored tests disallow candidates from using Calculator Software Applications in Desktop/ Laptop/ Mobile Device where the test is being given. However, a separate handheld calculator can be used. Use a notebook with a pencil to jot down relevant numbers to help you in making quick calculations. Tip 2: While calculating averages, it is easier to assume an approximate mean and calculation average of differences from that mean Question: What is the average marks scored by the student across all six periodical exams? Solution: You can assume the mean to be 380. The differences from the assumed mean are: -20, -15, -10, +5, +20, +25 Average of the differences = + 0.83333 Average Marks = Assumed Mean + Average Difference = 380.8333 Tip 3: Percentage of Change (Increase/ Decrease) = Difference/ Original Value * 100 Question: If the expenditure in 2000 is 25% more than expenditure in 1997, then the income in 1997 is what percent less than the income in 2000? Solution: Assume that Expenditure in 1997 is Rs.100. Expenditure in 2000 = Rs.125. Profits in 1997 = Rs45 (45% of expenditure) Income in 1997 = Rs145 Profits in 2000 = Rs75 (60% of expenditure) Income in 2000 = Rs200 Change in income from 2000 to 1997 = Change/ Original Value x 100 = 55/200 * 100 = 27.5% Tip 4: Grasp the information from the chart visually to answer some questions very quickly Question: Nearly 20% of the funds are to be sourced through? Solution: Roughly a quarter of all the funds are to be sourced through this channel. Which implies a sector with an angle of around 90⁰. The only sector with an angle close to 90⁰ is “External Assistance”. (contd..) Tips on Answering Aptitude Questions on Data Interpretation - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/87-chart-data-interpretation/1-tips-on-chart-data-interpretation/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  2. 9 TIPS on cracking Aptitude Questions on Visual-Spatial Problem Solving Tip 1: For pattern construction questions, remember that the resultant pattern must be formed using only the given figures Question: Find out which of the figures (1), (2), (3), (4) can be formed from the pieces given in figure (X). Solution: The figure must consist of a right triangle, a trapezium and an irregular pentagon, as shown above. Looking at the options one by one, we see that option (1) consists of the given figures rotated by 90⁰, the triangle and trapezium, clockwise, and the pentagon, anti-clockwise. (2) is not made of any of (X) except the trapezium. Similarly, (3) does not contain the pentagon and (4) consists of all shapes other than those in (X). Thus, the correct option is (1). Question: Find out which of the figures (1), (2), (3), (4) can be formed from the pieces given in figure (X). Solution: (X) Consists of 2 isosceles triangles and 2 right angled triangles. Now, (1), (2) and (4) cannot be formed using only these figures. Only (3) can be made using them, as follows: Thus, the answer is (3). Tip 2: Sometimes, it is quicker to just eliminate the invalid options Question: Find out how the key figure (X) look will like after rotation. Solution: We analyze the options one by one. (1) Can be eliminated since it contains more sections than the given figure. Similarly, (2) and (3) are also different from (X). Hence the answer is (4). Question: Select the alternative in which the specified components of the key figure (X) are found. Solution: Analyzing the options one by one, we see that (1) and (2) do not consist of ( ̶ ), while (3) consists of (ᴓ), which is not present in (X) at all. Thus, all these options are eliminated, and the correct answer is (4), which, we may cross-check as containing all components of (X) only. Tip 3: For problems on Paper Cutting, imagine the process of folding, cutting and opening, and draw indicative diagrams if required Question: Choose a figure which would most closely resemble the unfolded form of Figure (Z). A. (1) B. (2) C. (3) D. (4) Solution: The paper has been folded at 2 corners and 1 hole has been made on each fold. Since the paper was folded from either corner, when they are unfolded, there will be 4 holes, all on the diagonal joining them. Thus, figure (3) is the correct figure, and the answer is (C). Question: Choose a figure which would most closely resemble the unfolded form of Figure (Z). A. (1) B. (2) C. (3) D. (4) Solution: The paper has been folded equally thrice. Now, when it is unfolded, it will consist of 4 symmetrical parts, that look exactly like the cutout in form (Z). Thus, one of (2) and (3) is correct. Now, figure (3) is incorrect since there is a cut along the base of the (Z) which will result in a joint shape. So the answer is (B). Tip 4: In Dot Situation problems, simply find the figure that contains all the sections as the dots in the original figure Question: Select the figure which satisfies the same conditions of placement of the dots as in Figure-X. Solution: In (X), one of the dots lies in the region common to circle and square only, another dot lies in the region common to square, triangle and rectangle only and the 3rd dot lies in the region common to triangle and rectangle only. In each of the figures (1), (2) and (3) there is no region common to square, triangle and rectangle only. Only fig. (4) Consists of all the 3 types of regions. Tip 5: For problems on Embedded Images, find the figure from the given options in which the original figure can be completely traced Question: Find out the alternative figure which contains figure (X) as its part. (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 Solution: Looking at the answer figures one by one: (X) Cannot be traced anywhere in (1). Again, in (2), the figure is the lateral inversion of (X). Similarly, in (4), the figure is broken. Thus, all of these can be eliminated. Only in fig. (3) can fig. (X) be traced. Therefore, the answer is (C). Question: Find out the alternative figure which contains figure (X) as its part. (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 Solution: From the figures, it is clear that fig. (X) cannot be traced in fig. (1), (2) and (3), but can be traced only in fig. (4). Thus, the answer is (D). Tip 6: Mirror Image of a figure has all parts of the figure laterally inverted but not vertically Some points to note are: 1. Mirror images of alphabets A, H, I, M, O, T, U, V, W, X, Y, and digits 0, 8, are the same as the original ones. 2. The mirror image of a sequence of words and/or numbers is the mirror image of each, written in the reverse order. 3. The figure should remain the same vertically. Question: Choose the alternative which is closely resembles the mirror image of the given combination. Solution: Only the 2nd option can be correct since in all the other options the 1st and last characters are incorrect, i.e. not beginning with the mirror image of 2 and ending with A. Thus, the answer is (2). Question: Choose the correct mirror image of the figure (X) from amongst the alternatives Solution: Options (1) and (2) may be eliminated since they are vertically inverted as well. Now, since the small square appears on the left side of the line in (X), it should appear on the right side of the line in the mirror image. So the answer is (3). Tip 7: Water Image of a figure has all parts of the figure vertically inverted Thus, here: 1. The water images of alphabets B, C, D, E, H, I, K, O, X, and of digits 0, 8, remain the same as the original. 2. The water image of a sequence of words and/or numbers is the water image of each, written in the same order. 3. The figure should remain the same vertically. Question: Choose the alternative which closely resembles the water-image of the given combination. Solution: Option (1) can be eliminated since it is laterally inverted as well. Again, in (2), L and in (3), E is laterally inverted as well. Only (4) is the correct water image of (X). Tip 8: While counting the number of figures, count smaller ones first followed by larger ones etc. Note: Remember to count all the figures. For example, if you are asked to count the no. of triangles in a figure, count the simplest triangles, triangles made by 2 simpler components, those made by 3 simpler components, etc. until no triangle can be formed any longer. Question: Count the number of triangles and squares in the given figure. (A) 36 triangles, 7 squares (B) 38 triangles, 9 squares (C) 40 triangles, 7 squares (D) 42 triangles, 9 squares Solution: The figure may be labeled as follows: Triangles: Simplest triangles: BGM, GHM, HAM, ABM, GIN, UN, JHN, HGN, IKO, KLO, LJO, JIO, KDP, DEP, ELP, LKP, BCD and AFE i.e. 18 in number. Triangles composed of 2 components each: ABG, BGH, GHA, HAB, HGI, GIJ, IJH, JHG, JIK, IKL, KLJ, LJI, LKD, KDE, DEL and ELK i.e. 16 in number. Triangles composed of 4 components each: BHI, GJK, ILD, AGJ, HIL and JKE i.e. 6 in number. Total number of triangles in the figure = 18 +16 + 6 = 40. Squares: Squares composed of 2 components each: MGNH, NIOJ and OKPL i.e. 3 in number. Squares composed of 4 components each: BGHA, GIJH, IKLJ and KDEL i.e. 4 in number. Total number of squares in the figure = 3 + 4 = 7. Therefore, the answer is (A). Tip 9: For problems on Paper Folding, draw mirror/water images as required for the folded section and merge with the other section Question: Find out from amongst the four alternatives as to how the pattern would appear when the transparent sheet is folded at the dotted line. Solution: The mirror image of the right side of the image is given by (C). Hence, it is the correct answer. Question: Find out from amongst the four alternatives as to how the pattern would appear when the transparent sheet is folded at the dotted line. Solution: Option (A) is clearly not the correct answer. Again, options (2) and (3) may be eliminated since in fig. (X), the two straight lines on the left side are vertical, and those on the right are horizontal. Thus, the answer is (D). (contd..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test on Visual Spatial Problems - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/84-visual-spatial-problems/1-tips-on-visual-spatial-problems/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  3. 5 TIPS on Cracking Aptitude Questions on Pattern Matching Tip #1: Find the sequence of transformations applied on the figures Some common transformations that are followed in this type of questions are: Rotation: A part or whole of the figure may be rotated by a certain angle. Illustration 1: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?) In the figures, the shaded leaf rotates by 225⁰ in the clockwise direction while the un-shaded leaf rotates by 225⁰ in the anti-clockwise direction. Scanning through the options, we see that the 3rd figure satisfies these conditions. Thus, the answer is 3. Enclosure: A specific part or whole of the figure may be enclosed in some shape. Sides/ Lines: The number of sides/ lines in the figure may follow a certain progression. Illustration 2: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?) In these figures, the polygon rotates 90⁰ Clock-Wise, gets smaller in size and gets enclosed by a figure with one less side than itself. So the last figure will have a rhombus enclosed in a triangle. Thus, the correct answer is 1. Vertical/ Lateral Inversion: The figure may be inverted vertically, laterally, or both during successive transformations. Illustration 3: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?) Figure B is the result of vertical inversion of A. We may, thus, conclude that a figure is vertically inverted in the subsequent figure. Thus, the missing figure will be an inverted form of C. Looking at the answer figures, we see that figure 1 follows this transformation. Thus, the answer is 1. Shifting: A specific or whole of the figure may be shifted in any direction. Combination: A figure may follow more than one of the above mentioned transformations. Illustration 4: Select a suitable figure from the answer figures to replace (?) Except for the dots, the remaining part of the figure gets inverted and shifts to the opposite side of the square boundary. Thus, in the final figure, the sign ‘<‘will be inverted and will shift to the left side of the square boundary. This will be figure 3 from the answer figures. Thus, the answer will be 3. Tip #2: Break the figure into smaller parts to identify the pattern for figure completion Following are some of the ways of splitting a figure into smaller parts: Geometry: The figure may be broken into circles, triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, etc. that overlap, touch each other, enclose some shape(s), or are just parts of the figure. Illustration 5: Identify the figure that completes the pattern. Each quarter of the triangle consists of 2 right angled triangles. Thus, option D is correct. Illustration 6: Identify the figure that completes the pattern. The missing section should have 4 lines. One of these lines should touch the bottom left of the square and another should touch the top right. Only (D) matches these requirements. Tip #3: Classify the figures on the basis of sides, geometry or dimensions Some of the common classification bases are as follows: No. of Sides: Figures can be classified depending on the no. of sides they have. Type of geometry: The figures may be classified as triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, etc. Dimension: You may classify the figures as 2-D or 3-D figures. Conjoined, enclosed, or overlapping: Some figures may be complex, consisting of conjoined shapes, smaller shapes enclosed within larger ones and/or partially or completely overlapping shapes, while others might be simple. Illustration 7: Group the given figures into 3 classes using each figure only once. The given figures can be classified on the basis of number of sides. Figures 1, 6 and 9 have 3 sides each; 3, 4 and 7 have 4 sides each; 2, 5 and 8 have 5 sides each. Answer: 1, 6, 9| 3, 4, 7| 2, 5, 8. Illustration 8: Group the given figures into 3 classes using each figure only once. 1, 2 and 7 are simple figures. 3, 5 and 9 each have one shape enclosing another smaller shape. 4, 6 and 8 each have two shapes each that are touching each other. Thus, the given figures can be classified as: 1, 2, 7| 3, 5, 9| 4, 6, 8. Tip #4: Analyze the options one by one and eliminate choices that do not follow the rule Illustration 9: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule. Rule: Closed figures gradually become open and open figures gradually become closed. The 1st choice can be eliminated since in the 2nd figure itself, the inner circle does not open, but is replaced by a triangle. In the next set, the inner square does not open in the 2nd figure. All the figures in the 3rd option follow the rule, with the rectangle opening up and the straight line inside it closing into a rhombus. Thus, the answer is (3). Illustration 10: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule. Rule: As the circle decreases in size, its sectors increase in number. In the 1st option, though the size of the circle decreases, the no. of sectors remains the same. In the 2nd option, the no. of sectors in the 4th figure is less than that in the 3rd. Again in the 3rd choice, the no. of sectors in the 2nd figure is less than that in the 3rd. Thus, none of these options follow the rule. The correct answer is (D) and we may confirm that in the 4th option, the size of the circle decreases consistently while the no. of sectors increases. Tip #5: Complexity of a figure is determined by the no. of sides, shapes, sections, etc. When a figure is said to become simpler, it means that one or more of the following happens: Lines: If the no. of consistent lines of the figure continuously decreases, then it may be concluded that the figure is becoming simpler. In other words, if the no. of sectors of the figure keeps decreasing, then it is said to be becoming simpler. Shapes: If a figure becomes simpler, the no. of shapes consisting some part or whole of the figure keeps on decreasing consistently. Curves: The figures may also consist of certain curves. The extent or length of the figure keeps decreasing as the figure becomes simpler. Opening of figure: At times, a part or whole of the figure opens up, thus making it simpler. Illustration 11: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule. Rule: The series becomes simpler as it proceeds. Analyzing the sets one by one, we see: In the 1st set, the no. of sectors initially decreases, making the figure simpler, but then in the 5th figure, it again increases. Similarly, in the 2nd set, the complexity increases and decreases alternately. So none of them follow the rule. The figure in the 3rd choice, however, keeps becoming simpler as the no. of leaves and lines inside the circle keeps decreasing. The correct answer is (3). Illustration 12: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule. Rule: The series becomes more complex as it proceeds. Analyzing the sets one by one, we see: In the 1st set, the last figure is simpler than its preceding one in that the curve forming the vein of the leaf shortens. Considering the 2nd set, the 4th figure is simpler than the 3rd one since the lower left circle opens up. So, both these options are eliminated. Now, the 3rd set keeps becoming complex as the no. of sectors, and then triangles (at the edges), keeps increasing. Answer: (3). Illustration 13: Choose the set of figures which follows the given rule. Rule: The series becomes more complex as it proceeds. Again, we analyze the options one by one. The 1st set can be eliminated as it alternates between becoming simpler and complex owing to the no. of lines in the figure. The 2nd option keeps becoming more complex as the no. of lines and hence, sectors, keeps increasing. Thus, the correct answer is (2). (contd..) Tips on Non-Verbal Reasoning Test For Pattern Matching - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/85-pattern-recognition/1-tips-on-pattern-recognition/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  4. 3 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Venn Diagrams Tip #1: Start working from the outermost Venn diagram and gradually move inwards Question: Which of the following diagrams indicates the best relation between Women, Mothers and Engineers? Solution: Some women are mothers and some are engineers. All mothers are women, and some mothers are engineers. However, not all engineers are women. So, the answer is A. Question: In an organization of pollution control board, engineers are represented by a circle, legal experts by a square and environmentalist by a triangle. Who is most represented in the board as shown in the following figure? (a) Environmentalists with Legal background (b) Legal Experts (c) Engineers with legal background (d) Environmentalists with engineering background Solution: We have to assume that the shape with the largest area is the most represented. Among the given options, D (i.e.) Environmentalists with Engineering background has the largest area. Thus, the correct answer is D. Tip #2: Reduce the question as the overlapping of different portions of the Venn diagram In the following figure Upper Square represents the persons who know English, triangle those who know Marathi, Lower Square to those who know Telugu and circle those who know Hindi. In the different regions of the diagram, the counts are given. Question: How many persons can speak English and Hindi both the languages only? Solution: The people who can speak English and Hindi is represented by the portion of intersection of the circle and the upper square only. The no. here is 5. So 5 people can speak Hindi and English both. Question: How many persons can speak all languages? Solution: The people speaking all languages is represented by the portion of the Venn diagram that has all the figures overlapping. Since there is no such area where all the figures are overlapping, it means that no person can speak all the languages. Tip #3: The portion outside a figure represents the complement of the quantity inside it In the following diagram rectangle represents men, Triangle represents educated, Circle represents urban and square represents government employees. Question: How many men are educated but not urban? (a) 9 (b) 5 (c) 4 (d) 11 Solution: Educated but non-urban men is represented by the portion of the triangle that overlaps with the rectangle but not the circle. Thus, 11 men are educated but not urban. The correct answer is D. Question: Which one of the following represents a woman who is urban as well as government employee? (a) 7 (b) 13 (c) 10 (d) 6 Solution: Since the rectangle represents men, the portions of the other shapes that do not overlap with the rectangle represent women. The portion of the circle that overlaps with the square but not with the rectangle represents urban women who are government employees. Thus the answer is 10, i.e., C. (contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Venn Diagrams - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/72-venn-diagrams/1-tips-on-venn-diagrams/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  5. 3 TIPS to crack Reasoning Questions on Statements and Assumptions Tip #1: Assumptions should be drawn only from the given statement, not from your real life experiences Statement: "Please put more people on the job to make up for the delay." Assumptions: (I) Delay is inevitable in most jobs. (II) Output will increase with more number of people on the job. A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit Solution: Assumption I is not implicit, even if based on your real life experiences, you may believe that delay is inevitable in most jobs. As per the statement, increasing the number of people will make up for the delay by increasing the output. So II is implicit. Thus, correct option is B. Statement: If you are an engineer, we have a challenging job for you. Assumptions: (I) We need an engineer. (II) You are an engineer. A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit Solution: An engineer is needed, hence the advertisement. So assumption I is implicit. Assumption II is not implicit, even if the reader is an engineer. Hence the correct option is A. Tip #2: Don’t extrapolate beyond what is given in the statement to arrive at false assumptions Statement: Everybody loves reading adventure stories. Assumptions: (I) Adventures stories are the only reading material. (II) Nobody loves reading any other material. A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit Solution: Neither (I) nor (II) can be reasonably drawn from the given statement. Thus, correct answer will be D. Statement: “You can't solve syllogism question without constructing a diagram. Difficult questions on syllogism need Venn diagram solving,” a teacher tells his students. Assumption: (I) The students are not intelligent. (II) Problem cannot be solved. A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit Solution: Assumption I is false because nothing is said about the students. Assumption II is false since the statement does not say that the problem cannot be solved. So, correct answer is D. Tip #3: If a notice/ advertisement is put up, the implicit assumption is that it will have impact Statement: Do not copy our software without our permission - A notice. Assumptions: (I) It is possible to copy the software. (II) Such warning will have some effect. A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit Solution: If it were not possible to copy the software, there would be no need for the notice. Hence, (I) is implicitly true. Similarly, if the warning would have no impact, the notice would not be posted. Hence, (II) is also implicit. So, the correct answer is E. Statement: "A rare opportunity to be a professional while you are at home." - An advertisement for computer literate housewives by a computer company. Assumptions: (I) Some housewives simultaneously desire to become professional. (II) Computer industry is growing at a fast pace. (III) It is possible to be a professional as well as a housewife. A. Only I and II are implicit B. Only II and III are implicit C. Only I and III are implicit D. Only II is implicit E. None of these Solution: If no housewives desired to become professionals, there would be no reason to make the advertisement. Hence, (I) is implicit. (III) is also implicit, otherwise the advertisement would not be made in the first place. Thus, the correct answer is C. 3 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Statements and Arguments Classification of Arguments 1. Strong Argument: Strong arguments are those which are directly related to the statement, do not make extra assumptions, are valid and hold true. 2. Weak Argument: Weak arguments are those which not related to the statement directly, may make unjustifiable assumptions, are false, vague or invalid. Example: Statement: Are nuclear families better than joint families? Arguments: I. No. Joint families ensure security and also reduce the burden of work. II. Yes. Nuclear families ensure greater freedom. With so many people around in a joint family, there is more security. Also, work is shared. Again, in nuclear families, there are lesser number of people and so lesser responsibilities and more freedom. Both arguments are Strong. Tip #1: Arguments with unjustifiable assumptions are weak Statement: Should the education at all levels be offered only in vernacular medium? Arguments: I. Yes. This is the only way to enhance performance of the students. II. No. This will severely affect acquiring knowledge for want of good text books in vernacular medium. A. Only argument I is strong B. Only argument II is strong C. Either I or II is strong D. Neither I nor II is strong E. Both I and II are strong Solution: In (I) it is assumed that offering education in vernacular is the only way to enhance performance of the students. But, this assumption is not justifiable. Hence (I) is weak. Argument (II) is strong since offering books in English or other languages would open up more avenues for Students. So the correct answer is B. Statement: Should girls learn arts like judo and karate? Arguments: (I) Yes. It will enable them to defend themselves from rogues and ruffians. (II) No. They will lose their feminine grace. Solution: Learning martial arts is necessary for girls for self-defense. So, argument (I) is strong. In argument (II), it is assumed without justification that martial arts will impact feminine grace. Thus, the answer will be A. Tip #2: If an argument is not scientific or contradicts your general knowledge or goes against research by reputed organizations, it is weak Statement: Should books by only deserving authors be published? Arguments: (I) Yes. It will save a lot of paper which is in short supply. (II) No. It is not possible to draw a line between the deserving and the undeserving. A. Only argument I is strong B. Only argument II is strong C. Either I or II is strong D. Neither I nor II is strong E. Both I and II are strong Solution: Argument (I) says that paper is in short supply. But, this is not something we have ever heard in the news. It is contradictory to our general knowledge and is therefore weak. Argument (II) is a strong argument because establishing committees to control the publishing of books would be against freedom of speech. Such committees would also be partial and have their own agendas. So the correct answer is B. Tip #3: Arguments that are illogical and unrelated to the statement are weak Statement: Should all the school teachers be debarred from giving private tuitions? Arguments: (I) No. The needy students will be deprived of the expertise of these teachers. (II) Yes. This is an injustice to the unemployed educated people who can earn their living by giving tuitions. (III) Yes. Only then the quality of teaching in schools will improve. (IV) Yes. Now salary of these teachers is reasonable. A. Only I and III are strong B. Only I, II and III are strong C. Only III and IV are strong D. Only II, III and IV are strong E. None of these Solution: Argument (I) is weak because needy students will not be deprived of their education in schools, if those teachers also offer private tuitions on the side. Argument (II) is weak because other unemployed individuals can also hold private tuitions if they are capable of doing so. Argument (III) is strong. There could be a tendency for teachers to reduce their efforts in schools to encourage more students to join their private tuition classes. Argument (IV) is weak. By what standards can anyone decide to stop a worker from seeking further employment by deciding that their salary is already reasonable? Thus, the correct answer is E. 5 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Conclusions and Course of Action Tip #1: Conclusion drawn on the basis of data not provided in the statement(s) does not hold Statements: In a one-day cricket match, the total runs made by a team were 200. Out of these 160 runs were made by spinners. Conclusions: (I) 80% of the team consists of spinners. (II) The opening batsmen were spinners. A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow Solution: Nothing has been said in the statements about the number of spinners or the batsmen. So both conclusions do not follow. Hence the correct option is D. Statement: Any student who does not behave properly while in the school brings bad name to himself and also for the school. Conclusions: (I) Such student should be removed from the school. (II) Stricter discipline does not improve behavior of the students. A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow Solution: The statement mentions nothing about disciplinary action against misbehaving students, so none of the conclusions follows. The correct answer is D. Tip #2: Conclusions with definitive qualifiers (all, no one, at least) require stringent support to be valid Statements: A forest has as many sandal trees as it has Ashoka trees. Three-fourth of the trees are old ones and half of the trees are at the flowering stage. A. All Ashoka trees are at the flowering stage. B. All sandal trees are at the flowering stage. C. At least one-half of the Ashoka trees are old. D. One-half of the sandal trees are at the flowering stage. E. None of these Solution: Conclusions A, B, C do not hold because of the presence of definitive words ‘all’ and ‘at least’ when the statements do not provide such definite information. D does not follow because nothing has been said about the fraction of sandal trees in flowering stage. Thus, the answer is E. Statement: Money plays a vital role in politics. Conclusion: (I) The poor cannot become politicians. (II) All rich men take part in politics. A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow Solution: None of the conclusions follows since they are definitive whereas the given statement is not. Hence the correct answer is D. Tip #3: Conclusion should not contradict your common sense and general knowledge Statements: Our securities investments carry market risk. Consult your investment advisor or agent before investing. Conclusions: (I) One should not invest in securities. (II) The investment advisor can reasonably estimate the market risk A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow Solution: Investment in securities involves risk but this does not mean that one should not invest in securities. So I does not follow. Since the statement advises one to consult investment advisor before investing, so II follows. Thus the correct answer is B. Statements: Soldiers serve their country. A. Men generally serve their country. B. Those who serve their country are soldiers. C. Some men who are soldiers serve their country. D. Women do not serve their country because they are not soldiers. Solution: Conclusion A does not follow since it is ambiguous. Again, B does not hold since soldiers are not the only people serving their country. Conclusion D does not hold because it contradicts the fact that women can also be soldiers. C is the answer. Tip #4: There must be no extremity involved in the course of action Statement: The members belonging to two local societies occasionally fight with each other on the main highway and traffic is jammed always. Courses of Action: I. The local police station should immediately deploy policemen round the clock on the main highway. II. Those involved in fighting should be identified and put behind bars. III. Local authority should cease the management of the two societies with immediate effect. A. Only I and II B. Only I and III C. Only II and II D. All of I, II, III E. None Solution: To stop the fighting, the police must deploy troops and the culprits must be put behind bars to deter them from causing such scenes in the future, so I and II follow. The 3rd course of action would be extreme. So the answer is A. Tip #5: The course of action should be justified based on the statement Statement: The Company X has rejected the first load of valves supplied by Company A and has cancelled its entire huge order quoting use of inferior quality material and poor craftsmanship. Courses of Action: I. The Company A needs to investigate functioning of its purchase, production and quality control departments. II. The Company A should inspect all the valves rejected by Company X. III. The Company A should inform Company X that steps have been taken for improvement and renegotiate schedule of supply. A. Only I and II B. Only I and III C. Only II and II D. All of I, II, III E. None Solution: First of all, company A should inspect the rejected valves to ensure if they are really substandard. If so, it should scrutinize its working thoroughly and fix its quality issues. III is not justified from the statement, because the quality errors have not been fixed and issuing a statement to Company X to that effect would be a lie. The answer is A. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  6. TIP on cracking Reasoning Questions on Seating Arrangement Draw a diagram to illustrate the problem: Question: A, P, R, X, S and Z are sitting in a row. S and Z are in the center. A and P are at the ends. R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to the right of P? A. A B. X C. S D. Z Solution: A has to be at the right end otherwise there would be no place to A’s left for R to occupy. S and Z are seated at the central positions, although the specific order in which they are seated is not mentioned. This leaves only 1 space vacant, i.e., next to P and only 1 person, i.e., X. Hence the answer is B. Question: 6 friends are sitting in a circle and facing the center of the circle. Deepa is between Prakash and Pankaj. Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. Prakash and Mukesh are opposite to each other. Who is sitting right to Prakash? A. Mukesh B. Pankaj C. Pankaj D. Lalit Solution: Fixing Prakash’s position, we find Mukesh’s position. Deepa is between Pankaj and Prakash, and this can be on either side of Prakash. Now, Priti is between Mukesh and Lalit. This can happen when they are on the opposite side of Prakash. So, either Lalit or Deepa will be to the right of Prakash. So the correct option is D. (contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test Questions on Seating Arrangement - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/76-seating-arrangement/1-tips-on-seating-arrangement/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  7. 3 Tips on Solving Reasoning Questions on Number Series Tip #1: Arithmetic Series, Geometric Series, Patterns in Differences (1) Arithmetic Series: When the differences between the successive numbers given in the series is the same. For example: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14... (Here the difference between the numbers is 3, hence the next number will be 17) (2) Geometric Series: When each successive number in the series is obtained by multiplying or dividing the previous one by a fixed number. For example: 2, 6, 18, 72,… (3) Patterns in differences: Calculate the differences between the numbers given in the series provided in the question. Then try to observe the pattern in the new set of numbers that you have obtained after taking out the difference. Question: Look at this series: V, VIII, XI, XIV, __, XX, ... What number should fill the blank? Solution: This is an arithmetic series in Roman numerals; each no. is 3 more than the previous one. Thus, the missing number will be the Roman equivalent of 20 – 3 = 17, i.e., XVII. Question: Look at this series: 201, 202, 204, 207, ... What number should come next? Solution: The difference between the successive numbers is 1, 2, 3 respectively. Thus, the difference keeps on increasing by 1. Thus, the next number in the series will be 207 + 4 = 211. Tip #2: Pattern in Alternate/Adjacent numbers 1. Pattern in Alternate numbers: When there is a pattern between every alternate or third number in the series. For example: 2, 9, 5, 12, 8 , 15, 11.... 2. (2) Pattern in adjacent number: When adjacent numbers in the series changes based on a logical pattern. For example: 2, 4, 12, 48... Here the numbers are being multiplied by 2, then by 3, then by 4 etc. Question: Look at this series: F2, __, D8, C16, B32, ... What number should fill the blank? Solution: This is a complex series in which the successive letters decrease by 1 and the successive numbers are multiplied by 2. Thus, the number in the blank will be E4. Question: Look carefully at the following series and choose the pair that comes next. 42 40 38 35 33 31 28 A. 25, 22 B. 26, 23 C. 26, 24 D. 25, 23 Solution: This is an alternating subtraction series in which 2 is subtracted twice, then 3 is subtracted once, then 2 is subtracted twice, and so on. So the next terms in the following series will be 26 and 24. Thus the correct answer is C. Tip #3: Prime Numbers, Squares/Cubes, Alternate primes/exponents (1) Squares/Cubes: When numbers are a series of perfect squares. For example: 81, 100, 121, 144, 169... (2) Cube/Square roots: When the numbers are a series of perfect cubes. For example: 512, 729, 1000... (3) Alternate Primes: Here the series is framed by taking the alternative prime numbers. For example: 2, 5, 11, 17, 23, 31… Question: Look at this series: 4, 7, 16, 13, __, 19, 64, 29, ... What number should fill the blank? Solution: There are two alternating series here. The first one is the square of the multiples of 2 {22, 42, 62, 82 …} and the second one is a series of alternating prime numbers. The missing number is a part of the first series so the missing number is 62 = 36. Question: Look carefully at the following series and choose the pair that comes next. 4 7 26 10 13 20 16 A. 14, 17 B. 18, 14 C. 19, 13 D. 19, 14 Solution: Two patterns alternate here, with every third number following the alternate pattern. In the main series, beginning with 4, 3 is added to each number to arrive at the next. In the alternating series, beginning with 26, 6 is subtracted from each number to arrive at the next. So the next numbers will be 16 + 3 = 19, 20 – 6 = 14. Thus, the correct answer is D. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  8. 3 Tips on Cracking Reasoning Questions on Letter and Symbol Series Tip #1: Identify the changes happening in the successive patterns of a symbol series. Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: In each segment, the shapes are the same, but the one in the middle is larger than the two on either side. Also, one of the figures is shaded and that this shading alternates between 1st right and then left. Thus in the 3rd segment, there will be two small squares with a big square between them and the right small square will be blackened. Thus, the correct option is (2). Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: In each of the segments, the figures alternate between one-half and one-fourth shaded on the opposite sides. Thus, to complete the last segment, there should be one square that is one-fourth shaded and another that is half-shaded on the left side. Thus, the correct option is (4). Tip #2: Break the complex letter series into simpler ones and solve them individually Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. SCD, TEF, UGH, ____, WKL Solution: There are two alphabetical series here. The first series is with the first letters only, and consists of the consecutive letters of the alphabet starting from S, i.e., S, T, U, V, W. The second series involves the remaining two letters and involving 2 consecutive letters of the alphabet starting from C, i.e., CD, EF, GH, IJ, KL. So the missing term will be VIJ. Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. DEF, DEF2, DE2F2, _____, D2E2F3 Solution: In this series, the letters remain the same: DEF. The subscript numbers follow the following series: 111, 112, 122, 222, 223, 233, 333, ... Thus, the missing term is D2E2F2. Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. JAK, KBL, LCM, MDN, ____. Solution: This series may be broken up into 3 component series. The 1st one is the series J, K, L, M and N. The 2nd one follows the pattern A, B, C, D, E, and the 3rd one: K, L, M, N and O. Thus the missing term is NEO. Tip #3: Eliminate the incorrect choices Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: Since no 2 figures in the same segment are the same, Options (1) and (2) are eliminated. Now, the shading inside the circles gradually increases or decreases. Thus, the correct option is (3). Question: Look at the following series and fill in the blank. JAK, KBL, LCM, MDN, _____ A. OEP B. NEO C. MEN D.PFQ Solution: The first letter of each term follows the series J, K, L, M and N. This eliminates choices A, C, and D. Thus, the correct answer is B. Question: Look carefully at the sequence of symbols to find the missing pattern. Solution: In all these segments, the count of dots in the bottom box of the previous set equals the count of dots in the top box of the current set. This eliminates options (2), (3) and (4). Thus, the correct option is (1). (contd..) Tips on Letter & Symbol Series - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/71-letter-and-symbol-series/1-tips-on-letter-and-symbol-series/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  9. 2 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Direction Sense Tip #1: Make a sketch of the data provided Question: A man walks 5 km toward south and then turns to the right. After walking 3 km he turns to the left and walks 5 km. Now in which direction is he from the starting place? A. West B. South C. North-East D. South-west Solution: As we may see from the figure, the man is finally South-West from the starting point. Thus, the correct answer is D. Question: Ravi left home and cycled 10 km towards South, then turned right and cycled 5 km and then again turned right and cycled 10 km. After this he turned left and cycled 10 km to reach home. How many kilometers will he have to cycle to reach his home straight? A. 10 km B. 15 km C. 20 km D. 25 km Solution: Required distance = (5 + 10) km = 15 km. Thus, the answer is B. Tip #2: Draw a grid in questions when multiple possibilities can occur Question: 8 trees: mango, guava, papaya, pomegranate, lemon, banana, raspberry and apple are in two rows of 4 in each facing North and South. Lemon is between mango and apple but just opposite to guava. Banana is at one end of a line and is to the right of guava tree. Raspberry tree which at one end of a line, is just diagonally opposite to mango tree. Which tree is just opposite to banana tree? A. Mango B. Pomegranate C. Papaya D. Data is inadequate. Solution: Filling Banana first at one end, and Guava to its left, we can find the corresponding position for Lemon, i.e., opposite to Guava. On the sides of Lemon are Apple and Mango. Raspberry is at an end, being diagonally opposite to Mango. Thus, Mango is at the end next to lemon. This, determines the position of Apple and Raspberry as well. The empty positions can be occupied by Papaya or Pomegranate. We see that Mango is just opposite to Mango. So the answer is A. Question: Based on the data given above, which tree is just opposite to raspberry tree? A. Papaya B. Pomegranate C. Papaya or Pomegranate D. Data is inadequate Solution: We can see that either papaya or pomegranate is next to Raspberry. The answer is C. (contd..) Tips on Direction Sense - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/77-direction-sense/1-tips-on-direction-sense/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  10. 3 Tips on Cracking Reasoning Questions on Dice, Cubes and Cuboids Tip #1: Mentally rotate the dice to see which faces are adjacent and which are opposite 1.Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 4? Solution: 2, 3, 5 and 6 are adjacent to 4 and cannot be opposite to 4. The current answer is 1. 2. Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 2? Solution: From the given figures, it is clear that figure (ii) is obtained by rotating the cube in figure (i) one face to the left while holding the top and bottom constant. Hence, the opposite face of 2 has 4. 3. Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 4? Solution: Figure (ii) is obtained by making two rotations from (i) while holding the front (face with 3) and back constant. Hence, the opposite of 4 is 2. 4. Question: Two positions of a dice are shown below. Which number will appear on the face opposite to the face with the number 3? Solution: If you mentally rotate cube in figure (i) such that face 1 goes to the right and 5 and 3 are hidden from view with 5 at the bottom and 3 at the back, you will arrive at (ii). Hence, the opposite of 3 is 2. Tip #2: While folding a plus into a cube, the square at the longer end always forms the top of the cube and the middle square at the intersection will be the base of the cube Question: The figure given on the left hand side in each of the following questions is folded to form a box. Choose from the alternatives (1), (2), (3) and (4) the boxes that is similar to the box formed A. 1, 2 and 4 only B. 3 and 4 only C. 1 and 2 only D. 1, 2 and 3 only Solution: The square at the longer end will form the top while the middle square will form the base. The rest 4 sides that consist of 2 unshaded squares and 2 partially shaded squares will form the lateral edges. By rotating the dice formed, we would be able to visualize (1), (2) and (4). So, the correct option will be A. Tip #3: Draw indicative diagrams for cubes and cuboids to simplify the problem A cuboid shaped wooden block has 4 cm length, 3 cm breadth and 5 cm height. Two sides measuring 5 cm x 4 cm are colored in red. Two faces measuring 4 cm x 3 cm are colored in blue. Two faces measuring 5 cm x 3 cm are colored in green. Now the block is divided into small cubes of side 1 cm each. Question: How many small cubes will have two faces colored with red and green colors? Other faces of the small cube could be colored or blank. A. 12 B. 8 C. 16 D. 20 Solution: Cubes painted red and green on two sides will be along the left and right sides (5 cm length each) of the top and the bottom face. Thus, no. of such cubes = 5 x 4 = 20. Answer is D. Question: How many small cubes will have no faces colored? A. None B. 2 C. 4 D. 6 Solution: The cubes that will not be part of the faces of the cuboid will have no color. Thus, no. of such cubes = 2 x 3 x 1 = 6. So the correct answer will be D. (contd..) Tips on Logical Reasoning Test on Dice, Cube & Cuboid - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/75-dice,-cube-and-cuboid/1-tips-on-dice,-cube-and-cuboid/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  11. 5 TIPS on cracking Aptitude Questions of Data Sufficiency type Tip #1: Do not solve the problems Analyze the information provided: Do not solve the question using the information at hand. Question: Two towns are connected by railway. Can you find the distance between them? I. The speed of the mail train is 12 km/hr more than that of an express train. II. A mail train takes 40 minutes less than an express train to cover the distance. A. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer. B. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer. C. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer. D. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer. E. Both I and II are necessary to answer Solution: Let the distance between the two towns be D km. Let the speed of the express train be S km/hr. The speed of the mail train is S+12 km/hr. Creating an equation using I and II: D/(S+12) = (D/S) – (2/3) [because 40 minutes = 2/3 hrs] Don’t try to solve this equation. There is one equation with two variables and cannot be solved. Hence, the correct answer is D. Note: Questions of this type do not require you to actually solve them- you just need to interpret the information provided to you in the statements. Also, working out the problems may mislead you into hasty assumptions. So, avoid trying to solve them. Tip #2: Represent the given information visually on paper to easily process it Question: How many children does M have? I. H is the only daughter of X who is wife of M. II. K and J are brothers of M. Options: A. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer. B. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer. C. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer. D. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer. E. Both I and II are necessary to answer. Solution: From I, we have that H is the only daughter of M. But that does not mean that M has no son. Thus, the information is not enough to answer the question. II does not give tell us anything about M’s children. Thus, the correct answer is D. Tip #3: Do not make assumptions that cannot be justified by the given statements Question: How many ewes (female sheep) in a flock of 50 sheep are black? I. There are 10 rams (male sheep) in the flock. II. Forty percent of the animals are black. Options: A. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer. B. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer. C. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer. D. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer. E. Both I and II are necessary to answer Solution: Do not assume that the proportion of white: black sheep is uniform across rams and ewes. We know from (I) that there are 40 ewes but we do not know that 40% of ewes are black. Hence the right answer is D. Tip #4: Use Venn Diagrams when possible Question: Of the 70 children that visited a certain doctor last week, how many had neither caught cough nor cold? I. 40 of 70 had cough but not cold. II. 20 of 70 had both cough and cold. Options A. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer. B. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer. C. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer. D. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer. E. Both I and II are necessary to answer. Solution As we see in the Venn diagram, neither is sufficient but together, they are enough to solve the question. Hence, the answer is E. Note: Try representing Venn diagrams when possible. That way you do not have to rattle your brain on the problem unnecessarily. Also, this might be the fastest way to figuring out the answer in some questions. Tip #5: Typically the choices A through E tend to be the same We have already seen from the above examples that the choices are always given as follows: A. I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer. B. II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer. C. Either I or II alone sufficient to answer. D. Both I and II are not sufficient to answer. E. Both I and II are necessary to answer. So you can save time by just skimming over the choices superficially... (contd..) Tips on Data Sufficiency - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/74-data-sufficiency/1-tips-on-data-sufficiency/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  12. 4 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Cause and Effect Tip #1: Generally statements that happened in the past are the cause while statements in the present are the effect Statements: 1. The farmers have decided against selling their kharif crops to the Government agencies. 2. The Government has reduced the procurement price of kharif crops starting from last month to the next six months. Options: A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect C. Both statements are independent causes D. Both statements are effects of independent causes E. Both statements are effects of some common cause Solution: I happened after II and thus I cannot be a cause. This eliminates options A and C. The events are inter-related, which eliminates D. The answer can be either B or E. Now, it seems that the reduction in procurement price of crops must have instigated the farmers not to sell their produce to Government agencies. So, the correct answer must be B. Tip #2: Read each statement carefully to understand the nature of the cause-effect relationship Options: A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect C. Both statements are independent causes D. Both statements are effects of independent causes E. Both statements are effects of some common cause Statements: I. The life today is too fast, demanding and full of variety in all aspects which at times leads to stressful situations. II. Number of suicide cases among teenagers is on increase. Solution: Life has become too stressful and this has a major impact on the teenagers, leading to them committing suicide. Thus, the correct answer is A. Statements: I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers. II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area. Solution: Both the events are effects of the cause that there has been an increase in thefts in the area. So the answer is E. Tip #3: Do not try to force fit the statements into a cause-effect relationship as they could be the effects of a common cause or two independent causes Statements: I. The employees of the biggest bank in the country have given an indefinite strike call starting from third of the next month. II. The employees of the Central Government have withdrawn their week long demonstrations. Options A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect C. Both statements are independent causes D. Both statements are effects of independent causes E. Both statements are effects of some common cause Solution: The strike must have been called because of some cause. Similarly, The Central Government employees have withdrawn their demonstrations due to some cause. But the causes of these effects seem to be different and independent. So answer is D. Tip #4: Use general knowledge to link the statements Statements: I. There is increase in water level of all the water tanks supplying drinking water to the city during the last fortnight. II. Most of the trains were cancelled last week due to water-logging on the tracks. Options: A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect C. Both statements are independent causes D. Both statements are effects of independent causes E. Both statements are effects of some common cause Solutions: Both the statements are clearly the result of heavy downpour in the area. So the correct answer is E. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  13. 2 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Blood Relations Tip #1: Sound knowledge of blood relations Father's father → Grandfather Mother's father → Maternal grandfather Father's mother → Grandmother Mother's mother → Maternal grandmother Father's brother → Uncle Mother's brother → Maternal uncle Father's sister → Aunt Mother's sister → Aunt Children of uncle → Cousin Children of maternal uncle → Cousin Wife of uncle → Aunt Wife of maternal uncle → Maternal aunt Children of aunt → Cousin Husband of aunt → Uncle Question: Pointing to a photograph of a boy Suresh said, "He is the son of the only son of my mother." How is Suresh related to that boy? A. Brother B. Uncle C. Cousin D. Father Solution: Suresh’s mother’s only son is Suresh himself. So, the boy in the photo is Suresh’s son, i.e. Suresh is the boy’s father. The answer is then D. Question: If A + B → A is the mother of B; A - B → A is the brother B; A % B → A is the father of B and A x B → A is the sister of B, which of the following shows that P is the maternal uncle of Q? A. Q - N + M x P B. P + S x N – Q C. P - M + N x Q D. Q - S % P Solution: Analyzing the options, we see, D. Q is the brother of S, S is the father of P → Q is the uncle of P. C. P is the brother of M, M is the mother of N, N is the sister of Q → P is the maternal uncle of Q. Thus, the answer is C. Tip #2: Draw flowchart when suitable Question: P is the mother of K; K is the sister of D; D is J’s father. How is P related to J? A. Mother B. Grandmother C. Aunt D. Data inadequate Solution: Thus, P is the mother of J’s aunt. Or, in other words, P is the grandmother of J. The correct option is B. (The letters beside/under the arrows indicate: m: mother, sis: sister, f: father) Question: Given, M % N means M is the son of N, M @ N means M is the sister of N and M $ N means M is the father of N. Which of the following shows the relation that C is the granddaughter of E? A. C % B $ F $ E B. B $ F $ E % C C. C @ B % F % E D. E % B $ F $ C Solution: Analyzing the options, we see, With Option D: E is the uncle of C With Option C: C is the granddaughter of E. Hence, the correct option is C. (contd..) Tips on cracking Reasoning Questions Based on Blood Relation - https://learningpundits.com/module-view/73-blood-relations/1-tips-on-blood-relations/ LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  14. 2 TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Artificial Language Tip #1: Break the given words in the artificial language as well as English into smaller parts to find their translations Question: Here are some words translated from an artificial language. (I) migenlasan means cupboard (II) lasanpoen means boardwalk (III) cuopdansa means pullman Which word could mean "walkway“ ? A. Poenmigen B. cuopeisel C. lasandansa D. poenforc Solution: ‘Board’ is common between cupboard and boardwalk. Since ‘lasan’ is common between migenlasan and lasanpoen, we can conclude that ‘lasan’ implies ‘board’ and ‘poen’ implies ‘walk’. Both A and D start with ‘poen’ but ‘migen’ means cup and therefore A can be rejected. Thus, the correct answer is poenforc, i.e., D. Question: Here are some words translated from an artificial language. (I) apatose means first base (II) epatose means second base (III) lartabuk means ballpark Which of the following words could mean “baseball” ? A. buklarta B. oseepta C. bukose D. oselarta Solution: The word for ‘base’ could be ‘patose’ or ‘atose’ or ‘tose’ or ‘ose’ etc. From the options, since ‘ose’ is common across options B, C and D, we can conclude that the translation for ‘base’ is ‘ose’. The words in both the artificial language and English appear in the same order. Thus, option C can be eliminated. Among B and D, only D has the phrase ‘larta’ from lartabuk which corresponds to ‘ball’. So, the correct option is D. Tip #2: Eliminate options with (a) incorrect translations and/ or (b) incorrect order of appearance of the words Question: Here are some words translated from an artificial language. (I) agnoscrenia means poisonous spider (II) delanocreania means poisonous snake (III) agnosdeery means brown spider. Which word could mean ‘black widow spider’? A. deeryclostagnos B. agnosdelano C. agnosvitriblunin D. trymuttiagnos Solution: It is evident that in the artificial language, nouns appear first and then the adjectives, with the phrase ‘agnos’ meaning spider. Thus, it should appear first. This eliminates options A and D. Now, ‘delano’ means snake, so this eliminates option B. Hence, the answer is C. Question: Here are some words translated from an artificial language. (I) jalkamofti means happy birthday (II) moftihoze means birthday party (III) mentogunn means goodness. Which of the following could mean ‘happiness’? A. jalkagunn B. mentohoze C. moftihoze D. Hozemento Solution: In the artificial language, the phrase ‘mufti’ is common between ‘happy birthday’ and ‘birthday party’ and therefore, it refers to ‘birthday’. Hence, ‘jalka’ means happy. There is only one option with this phrase. So the correct answer is A. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.
  15. 2 TIPS on cracking Aptitude Questions on Trains Tip #1: Understand the concepts involved in a train crossing a pole or a platform 1. Time taken by a train of length L to pass a pole or standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover distance L. 2. Time taken by a train of length L to pass a station of length b is the time taken by the train to cover the distance (L + b). Question: A train running at the speed of 60 km/hr crosses a pole in 9 seconds. What is the length of the train? Solution: Time taken to cross a pole = time taken to cover distance equal to its own length. Speed of the train in m/s = 60 x 5 / 18 = (50/3) m/s. Length of the train = Speed of the train x Time taken to cross the pole = 50/3 x 9 = Length of the train = 150m. Question: A train passes a station platform in 36 sec and a man standing on the platform in 20 sec. If the speed of the train is 54 km/hr, what is the length of the platform? Solution: Speed of the train in m/s = 54 x 5 / 18 = 15m/s. Length of the train = 15 x 20 = 300m. Distance traveled in 36s = 15 x 36 = 540m. (This is the length of the train + platform combined) Length of the platform = (540 – 200) m = 240m. Tip #2: For problems on 2 trains, use the concept of relative velocity 1. If two trains of length a and b are moving in opposite directions at u m/s and v m/s, then time taken by the trains to cross each other = (a + / (u + v). 2. If two trains of length a and b are moving in the same direction at u m/s and v m/s, then time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = (a + / (u - v) . Question: 2 trains of length 137 m and 163 m are running towards each other and speeds 42 km/hr and 48 km/hr respectively. In what time will the two trains cross each other? Solution: Relative velocity = 42 + 48 = 90 km/hr = (90 x 5/18) m/s = 25 m/s. (Opposite directions) Time taken to cross each other = 300 / 25 = 12 sec. Question: 2 trains running in opposite directions cross a man standing on the platform in 27s and 17s respectively and they cross each other in 23s. Find the ratio of their speeds. Solution: Let the speeds be x m/s and y m/s respectively. Then, length of 1st train = 27x and that of 2nd train = 17y. Time taken to cross each other = (27x + 17y) / (x + y) = 23. = 27x + 17y = 23x + 23y. = 4x = 6y. = x: y = 3 : 2. LEARNING PUNDITS (https://learningpundits.com/) Learning Pundits help Job Seekers make great CVs, master English Grammar & Vocabulary, ace Aptitude Tests, speak fluently in a Group Discussion, apply for jobs, participate in online contests.